About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning (IQJAP) is an applied/natural science peer-reviewed journal with interdisciplinary activity. The journal has been publishing since 2001 with the aim of making significant contributions to applied research and knowledge across the globe, especially Iraq and the Middle East, through publication of original, high-quality research articles in the following fields: Architectural Engineering Architectural History Environmental and Sustainable Design General Architecture: Design, Theory, Methods Historic Preservation and Conservation Interior...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  [email protected]

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Abdullah Saadoon Salman Almaamouri

Print ISSN: 2617-9547

Online ISSN: 2617-9555

The Nature Of The Architectural Surfaces And The Structural Relationships In Order To Build Stability And Formal Balance

Anwar Shareef

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-23

The architectural surface represents one of the main pillars of formal configuration that work with each other to give the building external appearance and its formal properties. In general, the most important challenges facing the study of architecture is the analysis of The Structural Relationships under which the formal formation and formulas for generating its patterns within the different architectural directions to benefit from her in the process of architectural education. This research paper represented a step in the way of analyzing and establishing an information base for architectural propositions that dealt with surfaces according to Structural Relationships with multiple linking, modulating mechanisms, and applying that to selected models for outstanding architectural works throughout architectural history, Then these mechanisms were crystallized and explained precisely and in detailed drawings using the AutoCAD program, reaching the characteristics of the formal configuration at the level of balance and stability resulting from the nature of these architectural surfaces and the relationships according to which. The research methodology is based on building  comprehensive theoretical framework on the form, architectural surfaces and structural relationships, as this is considered a necessity to explore the mechanisms by which the designer works within the Modernity and Deconstruction architecture.
 
 
یمثل السطح المعماری احد رکائز التکوین الشکلی الاساسیة والتی تعمل مع بعض لإعطاء المظهر الخارجی للمبنى وخصائصه الشکلیة, وأهم التحدیات التی تواجه دراسة العمارة بشکل عام هو تحلیل العلاقات الترکیبیة التی ینتظم بموجبها التکوین الشکلی وصیغ تولید انماطه ضمن التوجهات المعماریة المختلفة للاستفادة منها فی عملیة التعلیم المعماری. مثلت هذه الورقة البحثیة خطوة فی طریق تحلیل وتأسیس قاعدة معلوماتیة لطروحات معماریة تعاملت مع السطوح المعماریة وفق علاقات ترکیبیة بالیات ارتباط وتحویر متعددة, وتطبیق ذلک على نماذج منتخبة لأعمال معماریة بارزة عبر التاریخ المعماری, ومن ثم بلورت هذه الالیات وتوضیحها بشکل دقیق بجداول تحلیلیة وصفیة ورسوم تفصیلیة باستخدام برنامج الاوتوکاد، وصولا الى خصائص التکوین الشکلی على مستوى التوازن والاستقرار الناتج عن طبیعة هذه السطوح والعلاقات التی ترتبط بموجبها, واعتمد منهج البحث بناء اطار نظری شامل عن الشکل والسطوح المعماریة والعلاقات الترکیبیة, اذ یعد هذا ضرورة لاستکشاف الالیات التی یعمل بموجبها المصمم ضمن التوجهات المعماریة المختلفة واثرها على الاستقرار والتوازن الشکلی.

Urban Strategies for Managing the Coronavirus Crisis

Mohammad Alaa Al-Jafan; Soulaiman Mhanna

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 24-41

The management of the spread of the Coronavirus crisis is one of the main challenges in the world today, and of increasing importance due to the widespread spread of the epidemic and its negative repercussions on local communities around the world, which put local administrations on the front lines to address the pandemic and take the lead in mitigating its effects. The article attempts to develop a theoretical and applied model to manage the crisis of the outbreak of the Coronavirus in urban areas by monitoring and analyzing the forms of local administrations' response to the pandemic and mitigating its negative repercussions on local communities and the health of the population. The article is also considered a scientific contribution learned from global experiences in pandemic management by formulating a scientific methodology in the form of urban strategies and clarifying their direct objectives, stages of work, and their application methods at the urban level to serve as a base on which local administrations rely in their work to reach the recovery stage.
 
 
تعتبر إدارة أزمة انتشار فیروس کورونا إحدى التحدیات الرئیسیة فی العالم الیوم، وذات أهمیة متزایدة نظراً للانتشار الواسع للوباء وتداعیاته سلبیة على المجتمعات المحلیة وصحة السکان فی جمیع أنحاء العالم، الأمر الذی وضع الإدارات المحلیة فی الخطوط الأمامیة للتصدی للجائحة وتولی زمام المبادرة فی التخفیف من أثارها. ویحاول البحث وضع نموذج تطبیقی لإدارة أزمة تفشی فیروس کورونا فی المناطق الحضریة من خلال رصد وتحلیل أشکال استجابة الإدارات المحلیة للجائحة. کما یعد البحث مساهمة علمیة مستفادة من التجارب العالمیة فی إدارة الجائحة من خلال صیاغة منهجیة علمیة على شکل استراتیجیات حضریة وتوضیح أهدافها المباشرة ومراحل عملها، وآلیاتها التطبیقیة على المستوى الحضری لتکون بمثابة قاعدة تستند علیها الإدارات المحلیة فی عملها وصولاً إلى مرحلة التعافی.
 
 

Development measures for slums of Dhaka city : Case study area Korail slum

Sanjida Ahmed Sinthia

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 42-55

Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh is extremely populated, unhygienic and environmentally degraded city. The growing number of population and environmental degradation are due to natural disaster and economic depression. As a result, the rate of urban poor is and producing huge pressure on urban lands, housing and infrastructure. Due to limited resources these poor people encroached open spaces, wetlands, vacant plots or even footpath for shelter. They don’t have any access to proper job market, healthcare facilities, education and sanitation either. These constraints are mostly resulted from the failures of the government in initiation proper policies and measures. Past policies of slum clearance, modernist apartment projects, housing provision, self-help, sites and services, and in-situ upgrading have not been effective at solving the crisis. This is now prime time to established planning and environmental management policy and sustainable development of the city area. Urban land management, rehabilitation and socio-economic development of the slum dwellers are also very important issues. The key focus of this paper is to find out sustainable development process for urban slum dwellers and build sustainable living place for them which are free from eviction, criminals, rent seekers and other miscreants.

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Journal Manager

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, In Press

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Continuous Productive Urban Landscape An Analytical study of Design Properties

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 12-23

The research had taken the concept of Continuous Productive Urban Landscape that appeared within the sustainable trends in the city, provides the opportunity to address the problems of lack in city open space, strengthen the relationship between the built environment and nature, access to multi-functional landscape.
Therefore, it request the need of research in this concept and determine its properties, so the research problem appeared, in the need of a theoretical framework for the properties of Continuous Productive Urban landscape, To help designers having its benefits in the design process.
Thus, the aim of this paper is to construct an inclusive theoretical framework of continuous productive urban landscape properties.
In order to solve the research problem, a previous literature review of the origin of the concept, has reached to the most important design properties of the Continuous Productive Urban landscape and determine the vocabularies and indicators relevant to it.
Then had been measured the validation values of the properties and its vocabularies and indicators, through analytic study for three projects had applied Continuous Productive Urban landscape within cities.
The results shown the variant in verification of these properties, coherence property emerged as a main design property, followed by integration then diversity.
Finally, had reached to a theoretical model for the properties of the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape in the city..

Intellectual immunity in architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 68-81

Architectural thought is defined as a final result of all principles and cognitive visions, which stored in human mind as a mental image, and reconfigured it to be fitting with all changes happened, that exposure the thought to all cognitive impurities (intellectual viruses), which may have a weakness and vulnerability. So immunity of thought protected it from such these impurities, when the research aims to enhance the immunity concept, and its levels of intellectual architectural process, while The research problem represented with a cognitive ambiguity of the immunity concept in the intellectual architectural process, that make the research follow an analytical method in two steps :theoretical one, is to define the concept of immunity, and the role of immunity levels in promote architectural output immunity. The research assumed is the immunity of designing productions increased when, the intellectual levels of the process (the design process) increase). Another step (practical step) is to analysis all Elective projects, leading to the immune architectural production, is a production which is compatible with the surrounding environment, whatever intellectual changes have taken place and acquired through that the continuity and longevity..

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

The Contemporary Affordable Housing The Principles of Contemporary Affordable Housing in Residential Buildings

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 82-96

Affordable Housing represents one of the main attitudes depended universally at the main time, to meet the developed housing need, which reflected on the development of the concept to what is called now the contemporary affordable housing which must be differentiated from the traditional affordable housing and determine its privacy according to architectural special thesis, and that brings research problem "there is a gap about the role of contemporary affordable housing principles in the development of residential in general and local projects". The research determined the main items reflected to the concept, which are represented by the contemporary affordable housing principles, site planning and the dwelling units. The research hypotheses was that "the site planning consideration and the dwelling unit have a role according to the contemporary affordable housing in international and local housing projects. The paper studied two examples, one of them is the national, and the other is the local, analyzed them according to the theoretical framework and finally submits the conclusions which shows the integration response system that achieves dimensions of housing development from residential units with high quality technological designs with suitable locations and sizes that achieve high density at low rise, connection to infrastructure, proximity to work and transportation..

The Effect of Urban Street Planting on Improving the Climate of Baghdad city

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 21-37

The aim of this research is to study the effect of tree planting on the reduction of thermal load of solar radiation falling on the area of Baghdad city and its contribution to weather treatments; since the temperature of green mass of trees is less than the human body and higher than air temperature in winter, so one expects condense tree plantation and foliage may participate in reducing air temperature in summer and could make the climate of the city to approach near the human temperature comfort limits .The impetus to encourage the authors to undertake the research is the positive results and indications derived from earlier authors' research work and that done by other researchers. Recent advances of modern scientific and technological in the field of electronic instrumentation measurements and sophisticated thermal imaging devices, which are expected to help in measurement and obtain temperature pattern of every point on the trees or at any point on block trees, besides measuring the thermal effect of shading on human body of people using the road (the camera has an accuracy of (0.1 oC).
In order to ensure high precision and optimum reliability of experimental results in the proposed work, experts from the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad were approached to assist in selecting one of the best suitable tree for Baghdad environment. Their choice was ( Albizia Lebbech ), and by the use of (GIS) photos of Baghdad city, the most suitable site to perform the experimental measurements in Baghdad city is chosen as the Baghdad University, in view of abundance of Albizia in addition to the availability of all other required variables. With the kind permission of the Presidency of Baghdad University, experiments have been performed on the 21st of June 2012, since this day has the highest amount of solar radiation all over the year The results and analysis have shown that there is a distinct effect of shading with trees in reducing temperature street air temperature and in providing better human effective temperature than shading the walkways with buildings . In an attempt to theoretically verify the extent of this impact on the entire city of Baghdad calculated, only the whole length of the main streets of Baghdad city are found by satellite images "GIS" ( within the boundaries of Municipality of Baghdad). It shows that the forestation process, including the effect of shading and evaporative cooling is equivalent to 45 million tones of refrigeration, which certainly will help in reducing the required energy for buildings' cooling . Therefore, the results will encourage in recommending forestation over all main streets as well as all streets in residential districts, which in return will change the whole climate of the city of Baghdad. ﯿﻬ ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤ

Focalization as Strategy for the production and reading of contemporary architectural text

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2018, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 129-143

Research examines the concept of ethical imagination as one of the influential concepts in the architectural design process. Who is known as "the Architect's ability to think according to moral frameworks to become an important source and then to be the task of balancing the poetic and the disciplined imagination to produce an ethical architectural text that benefits the individual and society. ", thus be the research problem (implications of morally imaginative concept in architecture ). So the research aims to explain the basics of moral fiction in architecture, and we are on it. Research assumes that the foundations of moral fiction have an impact on the formulation of the architectural product . For the purpose of addressing the research issue and achieving the objectives of research and verification of its hypothesis, a knowledge framework was first built . Then a comprehensive theoretical framework for the imagination of the moral architecture extracted from the architectural propositions to be finalized in three main indicators is. Principles of moral constructional imagination, the foundations of moral and ethical imagination, moral logic of the Moral imagination architecture. Then apply them to elected projects to illustrate their impact on the architectural output and to arrive at conclusions that show the architectural imagination according its basics "

Developing a Conceptual Framework for Bridging the Gap Between (theory and practical) in Urban Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 452-465

There is confusion in professionals for the field of urban design results from the interactive nature of the
relationship between the (Idea) and presnting it in a communication language. The problem becomes more
complicated when shaping the (Concept) and the transition from the conceptual level to the next level applied.
So the main focus of current research on the statement of what the idea and concept, and the transition
mechanisms towards the application of the components of the process of urban design. It aims to search out the
mechanics and easier the process of communication between the parties of jurisdiction over the application level
and the level of education for the profession . .
Search as it tries to develop the basic ideas to move the concepts of urban design to the level applied. As the
research found that these concepts are broad and it needs to measurable indicators and to be aware of and
measurable indicators should contain realistic.
The search is based on the premise: (a real confusion between the idea and the concept (theoretically and
practically), including a direct impact on professional and academic groups within the field of urban design, in
terms of the ability to put ideas and presenting them).
Despite the fact that urban design is strongly related to applied science and experimental witch end with
objective product to bring jobs and human need. But the idea is part of very special in the field of urban design,
but it's the nature of the designer within the stages of preparation to do, but that there is no need to be followed
by the employer through the steps of the design process, the idea in any case be found behind the work, does not
matter However, the competent Fahim. If this view is important in practice, but what is happening already on the
level of education, indicates the presence of a missing link between teacher and student; represented in learning
to ask and formulate ideas and presnting, which weakens the possibility of create excellence urban product. .

Fractal Rhythm In Local Architectural facades

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 25, Pages 105-126

The research focuses on local architectural facades in Baghdad and the chaos and
confusion ,Loosing the balance and order that these facades suffered from, due to
random and irresponsible architectural practices, with the emergence of the idea of fractional rhythm as
a regulatory tool achieves that exciting balance back between the extremes (contextual and disorder), the
research problem has Defined that there is no study diagnosed this confusion and anarchy in local
architectural facades in Baghdad based on the idea of fractional rhythm, on that base the research's goal
is to Identify practical procedures to reach to facades with fractional rhythm far from the anarchism and
confusing, to enrich back our local facades.
To achieve research's goal, a methodology has been determined to formulate a theoretical framework
for fractal rhythm which Sets fractional rhythm indicators and detailed variables through reviewing
studies and establishing a sufficient knowledge base to apply the abstract framework within an
exploratory study on Samples of elevations belong to local architectural heritage To examine the grade
of diversity and identify mechanisms adopted and the design characteristics (formal and substantive),
that achieved the distribution of fractional rhythm reaching to test these results on the two sets of
contemporary facades the first based on local heritage as Primary source of design when the second is
random design to support the results derived and Provide The final conclusions of the research that
provides treatment solutions to this disordered and chaotic reality in our contemporary local facades.

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

Excerption and inclusion in language and architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 16, Pages 129-150

Excerption and inclusion are two terms in Arabic rhetoric. The excerption is defined as a taking a part of text from Holly Quran or Hadith and put it in a poem, verse line, or put it in a prose text. But the linguistics expand the concept of this term to include taking from another sciences and knowledge, like Grammar, Philology, and Prosody.
Inclusion is defined as taking a verse line or part of verse line from another poet to put it in a new poem, it is necessary that the poet who take the text should declare it, and if he hides it, it will be plagiarism.
This search is use these two terms in architecture, we have now new two terms in architecture, first one; architectural excerption, it means the designer takes a part of religious or historical building and put it in his new design. The designer also can take from another sciences and knowledge, like physics, mathematics, or schools of modern criticism like deconstruction, to put his new design. The second term (architectural inclusion) means the designer takes a part of another modern design, neither religious nor historical, if he hides this, it is considered as architectural plagiarism.
The search proved that there are many architectural designs which include the meaning of these two terms.
.

Digital ArchitectureStudying the formality characteristics of "digital architecture"

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 430-451

The digital revolution reflected on the architecture as it reflected on other scientific, living and social fields.
It's effects emerged clearly in the architectural form, Hence the architectural products did not stop at the design using the traditional methods and producing pictures using computer but exceeded to where the form produced as a result to the imagination design affected directly by the digital media. There is a clear lack of knowledge in this aspect on the academic and professional levels within our local modern digitalization society.
According the research problems was limited to "the lack of clear imagination of the forms characteristics for the digital architecture", and the research aimed to "specify the forms characteristics indications for the digital architecture".
To realize this goal some architectural studies were reviewed on two level, the first level being the architectural studies in relation to the analysis of the architectural forms to come out with general indications regarding the studies and form analysis, while the second level came out through reviewing these indicators in some studies that concerned the digital architecture and its forms resulting in main details, giving birth to the scope of understanding which were used later to test within projects defined by the architectural studies in owning the characteristics of digital forms and arriving to the final description to what the research concluded characteristics defined for the digital forms.
.

The local features in the Islamic architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 234-255

Islamic architecture has spread in a wide geographical regions, covering many areas and cities with distinct civilizations, Most of these areas and cities imposed their local architectural features on the forms of Islamic buildings in these areas due to the flexibility that characterized the process of composition output of Islamic architecture represented in different functional patterns as mosques, palaces, schools, baths and markets.
This paper tries to study in-depth the existence of these local features and its assets in a range of distinct civilized areas covered by Islamic architecture. Reviewing previous studies concerning the research topic revealed the problem of the research which was the absence of enough theoretical knowledge about the details of local features in the Islamic architecture models, Thus, the research made it its goal to determine impact of these features on Islamic architecture and to disclose the process of employing it in the Islamic architecture buildings. To achieve this goal, the research adopted an approach with a number of steps: first, determining a theoretical framework with a collection of detailed vocabulary for studying the impact of local features, as the types of local features, the types of processing these features, and locations of the impact of them within the building, and the nature of the functions performed by these features, Then the application of this theoretical framework on mosques buildings in Islamic architecture in a group of areas with distinct civilizations and up to analyze the results and determine the deductions.
.

The impact of laws and regulations in urban land management and urban Baghdad - A Case Study

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 48-64

To business management and operational control of reconstruction in the city of Baghdad, carried out through the legislative system consists of a set of laws, regulations and decisions issued by the various destinations and on successive phases, these laws had a direct impact on urban land use and urban development.And urban planning has a number of dimensions, including the legal dimension and the dimension of administrative and executive Urban in Iraq is subject to a number of dimensions by the departments and bodies and institutions is determined by regulations and the laws of multiple and conflicting with each other often, "which led to a lack of respect and lack of commitment by the result or resulted ina clear deterioration in the level of services currently provided "and confusion at the scene and the urban fabric in urban areas in Iraq in addition to the loss of a lot of effort and various resources.This research will address to the review and evaluation of laws and resolutions dealing with Ostamlat the ground and their relationship to the process of age of the city of Baghdad and the diversity of these laws and lack of comprehensiveness and opposes sometimes "may form a partnership heavy on action planning and the development and expansion of the city despite the positive role of the change in these laws in effect on features Urban of the city, to take the city of Baghdad as a case study for the application of those laws and see how they affect them. ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﯿﻬﺎ .

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