About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning (IQJAP) is an applied/natural science peer-reviewed journal with interdisciplinary activity. The journal has been publishing since 2001 with the aim of making significant contributions to applied research and knowledge across the globe, especially Iraq and the Middle East, through publication of original, high-quality research articles in the following fields: Architectural Engineering Architectural History Environmental and Sustainable Design General Architecture: Design, Theory, Methods Historic Preservation and Conservation Interior...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  ijae@uotechnology.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Abdullah Saadoon Salman Almaamoori

Print ISSN: 2617-9547

Online ISSN: 2617-9555

The Ecological Dimension in the Formation of Resilient Urban Landscape

Haneen Ali Abd Mohya; Khanssa Ghazi Rasheedb

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.133198.1035

The research deals with the concept of resilience in the urban landscape in terms of its ecological aspect, as a dynamic system that is formed from the interactions of nature with artificial elements, and it possesses resilient dynamic relationships that create spatial and temporal urban continuity. the concept of urban resilience includes new theoretical tools for thinking that resulted from the transformation of the sustainable development model and became more important with the emergence of crises and unexpected changes, and the research studies the relationship between the attributes of Resilience and the ecological aspect in the formation of the urban landscape, leading to the research problem represented by(the lack of clarity of ecological indicators that achieve Resilience in the urban landscape), and the goal of the research was set with (finding a theoretical and conceptual framework on the attributes of resilience and its ecological indicators in formation of Resilience urban landscape ).Accordingly, the main idea was to discuss those attributes and their ecological variables and indicators to find a resilience urban landscape that has the ability to self-organize and deal with changes to solve the research problem, the research relied on a set of studies on those attributes, taking into account that the variables and their indicators directly related to the ecological formation of urban landscape and can be measured, In order to test the hypothesis through a practical study by adopting the descriptive-analytical method for projects that applied those attributes, and reaching the results and conclusions.
 
 
یتناول البحث مفهوم المرونة فی الفضاء الخارجی الحضری من جانبهِ الایکولوجی بوصفهِ نظاماً دینامیکاً شکلته تفاعلات الطبیعة مع العناصر المصطنعة ویمتلک علاقات مرنة دینامیکیة تخلق استمراریة حضریة مکانیة وزمنیة ، إذ یتضمن مفهوم المرونة الحضریة أدوات نظریة جدیدة  للتفکیر الذی نتج عن تحّول نموذج التنمیة المستدامة وقد أکتسب الأهمیة مع ظهور الأزمات والتغیرات غیر المتوقعة، ویدرس البحث العلاقة بین خصائص المرونة وتشکیل الفضاء الخارجی الحضری وفقاَ للبعد الایکولوجی فی التشکیل وصولاً الى تحدید المشکلة البحثیة المتمثلة بـ(عدم وضوح المؤشرات الایکولوجیة التی تحقق المرونة فی الفضاء الخارجی الحضری)،التی حُدد على أساسها هدف البحث بـ(إیجاد إطار نظری مفاهیمی حول خصائص المرونة ومؤشراتها الایکولوجیة فی تشکیل الفضاء الخارجی الحضری المرن)،وبناءً علیه کانت الفکرة الأساسیة هی بحث تلک الخصائص ومتغیراتها ومؤشراتها الایکولوجیة لإیجاد فضاء خارجی حضری مرن قادرٍ على التنظیم الذاتی والتعامل مع التغیرات، واعتمد البحث فی معالجة المشکلة البحثیة على مجموعة من الدراسات الضمنیة لتلک الخصائص مع الاخذ بنظر الاعتبار أن تکون المتغیرات ومؤشراتها ذات صلة مباشرة بتدخلات تشکیل الفضاءات الخارجیة الحضریة ایکولوجیاً وقابلة للقیاس واختبار الفرضیة من خلال الدراسة العملیة باعتماد الأسلوب الوصفی-التحلیلی لمشاریع طبقت تلک الخصائص، والتوصل الى النتائج والاستنتاجات.

The Invisible Articulations in the Architecture of Local Churches (Catholic Churches as a Case Study)

Raneen Wisam Marqus; Asmaa Mohamed H. Al-muqarm

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 21-41
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.133059.1031

Christian architecture was characterized within its various types by a set of unique design characteristics at the level of space organization, facades, and mass formation. The previous knowledge was concerned with church architecture and put forward the concept of invisible articulation through the sequence of movement of the user of space through devotional rituals (liturgy). A research problem is the lack of clarity on the nature of compatibility within the invisible details in the architecture of contemporary local Iraqi churches from the traditional. The hypothesis is that the compatibility between the invisible details in the architecture of the traditional local churches is more achieved than the realization of this relationship within the contemporary local churches. The quantitative research approach was adopted in three stages (building a theoretical framework on the characteristics of the invisible articulation through a set of vocabulary related to the invisible articulation within the behavioural-kinetic system. Then, the liturgical system, which is governed by a specific kinetic and temporal system and specific users), was applied to four samples of local churches. The measurement method and its method for the invisible articulation were also determined by adopting the (Justified Graph) technique to measure the ritual system and focused on recording the results and determining the conclusions.
 
 
بالرغم من تمیز عمارة الکنائس ضمن أنواعها المختلفة بمجموعة من الخصائص التصمیمیة المتفردة على مستوى التنظیم الفضائی والواجهات والتکوین الکتلی، لوحظ أن المعرفة السابقة التی اختصت بعمارة الکنائس هو طرحها لمفهوم التمفصل اللامرئی من خلال تسلسل حرکة المستخدم للفضاء من خلال الطقوس التعبدیة (اللیتورجیا) وغیرها, فنصت مشکلة بحثیة على "عدم وضوح طبیعة التوافق ضمن التمفصلات اللامرئیة فی عمارة الکنائس المحلیة المعاصرة عن التقلیدیة")فی العراق)، وترکز هدف البحث "بتحدید مستویات التوافق بین التمفصلات اللامرئیة فی عمارة الکنائس المحلیة المعاصرة والمحلیة التقلیدیة". لتکون الفرضیة "یتحقق التوافق بین التمفصلات اللامرئیة فی عمارة الکنائس المحلیة التقلیدیة بشکل أکبر من تحقق هذه العلاقة ضمن الکنائس المحلیة المعاصرة". تم اعتماد المنهج البحثی الکمی وعلى ثلاث مراحل (بناء أطار نظری حول خصائص التمفصل اللامرئی باستخراج مجموعة مفردات المرتبطة بالتمفصلات اللامرئیة ضمن المنظومة السلوکیة الحرکیة، وتحدید إجراءات الدراسة العملیة التی تضمنت تعیین مفردات القیاس بالترکیز على مفردة التمفصل اللامرئی المتعلقة بالمنظومة الطقوسیة الذی یحکمه نظام حرکی وزمنی معین ومستخدمین محددین، وطبقت على أربعة کنائس محلیة، اثنان منها تقلیدیة واثنان معاصرة. کما حُدد أسلوب القیاس وطریقته باعتماد تقنیة (Justified Graph) لقیاس المنظومة الطقوسیة، وبتسجیل النتائج وتحدید الاستنتاجات.

Indicators of Deviated Semantic Structure in Architecture

Haneen Abd-Alrahman; Parizat Q. Hussein Fehmi

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 42-58
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.132919.1027

The deviation is a phenomenon of life before it is an important phenomenon in creative and artistic processes within different fields. Including the field of architecture, where the designer resorted to it to form a new architectural product that goes beyond the rules and direct, explicit connotations, achieving poeticism, uniqueness, and excellence in its production. Given the importance of the concept and its role in the formation of contemporary architectural production. The research went on to explore it, identifying its research problem b: cognitive deficiencies around indicators of semantic structure that include displacement in architecture. Still, its goal is to reach a clear vision of semantic structure indicators, including displacement in architecture. The research achieved the stages of his approach, which began by introducing a procedural definition of displacement in architecture. Additionally, reviewing a series of previous architectural studies (international and local) and some thesis in the language, literature, and literary criticism to reach the most prominent indicators of semantic structures displaced in architecture. The research then went on to apply these indicators to two projects of contemporary Iraqi architecture. It then went on to use these indicators for two projects of contemporary Iraqi architecture, after which it tends to discuss the results and put forward the conclusions on the theoretical and practical aspects of the research.
 
 
یعد الانزیاح ظاهرة من ظواهر الحیاة قبل ان یکون ظاهرة مهمة فی میدان العملیة الابداعیة والفنیة ضمن حقول مختلفة ومنها حقل العمارة، اذ یلجأ لها المصمم لغرض تشکیل نتاج معماری جدید یتجاوز القواعد المالوفة والدلالات الصریحة المباشرة محققا الشعریة والتفرد والتمیز لنتاجه. وبالنظر لأهمیة المفهوم ودوره فی تشکیل النتاج المعماری المعاصر توجه البحث الى استکشافه محددا مشکلته البحثیة بـ: القصور المعرفی حول مؤشرات البنیة الدلالیة التی تضم الانزیاح فی العمارة، أما هدفه فتمثل بالتوصل الى تصور واضح حول مؤشرات البنیة الدلالیة التی تضم الانزیاح فی العمارة. اتجه البحث بعدها لتحقیق مراحل منهجه الذی ابتدا بطرح تعریف اجرائی للانزیاح فی العمارة ومن ثم مراجعة مجموعة من الدراسات المعماریة السابقة (عالمیة ومحلیة)، بالاضافة الى مراجعة عدد من طروحات حقل اللغة والادب والنقد الادبی لیتوصل بعدها الى طرح أبرز مؤشرات البنى الدلالیة المنزاحة فی العمارة، ومن ثم توجه البحث الى تطبیق هذه المؤشرات على مشروعین من مشاریع العمارة العراقیة المعاصرة لیتجه بعدها الى مناقشة النتائج وطرح الاستنتاجات النهائیة الخاصة بالجانبین النظری والعملی للبحث.

Treatments of Sustainable Preservation in Heritage Buildings: Reviews the Treatments that can Improve the Preservation of Heritage Buildings

Ula Faris Al-Sakiny; Mustafa Kamil Al-Kafaji

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 59-75
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.132935.1028

Heritage buildings result from human cultures and are a significant expression of civilization and cultural thought. It has become part of our lives, and informatics has become in all areas of life; it has a real place in human production and affects the present and future. From here, it was necessary to think about how to preserve the heritage buildings and their protectors in a way that suits the requirements of the present era and preserve them for future generations by introducing sustainable development and its fields to conservation operations. Minimal sustainable conservation operations are using modern technologies without compromising the essence of the building and its identity, but rather working to strengthen its heritage features. Thus, the focus of the general research became modern procedures for preserving heritage buildings. The research problem is the existence of a knowledge gap between theory and practice related to how to preserve heritage buildings, including their continuity for future generations because they are a source of inspiration for the local architect. Therefore, the analytical framework included building a comprehensive theoretical framework of knowledge about heritage buildings, preservation, and sustainable development factors and how to introduce technology to preserve the building in the future.
 
      الابنیة التراثیة هی نتیجة ثقافات البشر وهی تعبیر جاد عن حضارتهم وفکرهم الثقافی، ولیتم التعرف على شعب یجب التعرف على حضارته وثقافته ویتم ذلک عن طریق العمران الذی یختلف من شعب لاخر ویمتاز بخصوصیته وهی مزیج من عوامل بیئیة واجتماعیة واقتصادیة، ومع تطور الحیاة تطورت مجالات التکنلوجیا والتقنیة وأصبحت جزء من حیاتنا واصبحت المعلوماتیة فی کل مجالات الحیاة ولها مکان اساسی فی انتاجات الانسان وتؤثر على حاضره ومستقبله. من هنا کان لابد من التفکیر فی کیفیة الحفاظ على الابنیة التراثیة وحماتیها بشکل یلائم متطلبات العصر الحاضر والحفاظ علیها للأجیال القادمة عن طریق أدخال التنمیة المستدامة ومجالاتها على عملیات الحفاظ لتکون لدنیا عملیات الحفاظ المستدام بأستخدام التقنیات الحدیثة دون المساس بجوهر المبنى وهویته بل العمل على تعزیز سماتها التراثیة. بهذا اصبح  محور البحث العام بـ: الاجراءات الحدیثة للحفاظ على الابنیة التراثیة ومشکلة البحث هی: وجود فجوة معرفیة بین النظریة والتطبیق المتعلق بکیفیة الحفاظ على الابنیة التراثیة بما یضمن أستمرارها للأجیال القادمة وذلک لکونها مصدر ألهام للمعماری المحلی .اعتمد البحث على اسلوب المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی.
 
 

Formal Activation Through Complexity Characteristic

Media Adel Khalaf; Khansaa Ghazi Rasheed; Rana Mazin Mahdi

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 76-94
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.133311.1036

Formal developments were characterized by different concepts, one of which was complexity, which affects the architecture because of its association with ambiguity and differentiation. The research begins with the definition of the complexity property. Then, the study discussed complexity as a design characteristic in terms of its phenomena and touched on the dimensions of complexity in the residential environment. The research problem is a need for knowledge about the property of complexity in the forms of buildings and what is related to their design dimensions in residential environments. The goal of the research was to identify the important vocabulary in complexity characteristic of formal and urban activation, leading to the theoretical framework on the dimensions of complexity in residential environments and complexity in buildings. The research adopted the descriptive analytical method in the framework and applied it within the practical study. The results showed a dimension of complexity was achieved with a percentage of 89.83%, and a dimension of complexity in buildings with a percentage of 86.05%. The research concluded the complexity characteristic achieves the formal activation within the city, and it is linked to ambiguity within the architectural formations to achieve a contradictory architecture that generates multiple levels of meanings.
 
أتصفت التطورات الشکلیة بمفاهیم مختلفة، أحد هذه المفاهیم هو التعقید، والذی یؤثر على نتاج العمارة لارتباطه بالغموض والتمایز والاختلاف والاسالیب التکنولوجیة. یبدأ البحث بتعریف خاصیة التعقید، ومن ثم مناقشة التعقید کخاصیة تصمیمیة من حیث ظواهره ومکوناته، وتطرق البحث الى ابعاد التعقید فی البیئة السکنیة والحضریة، تبلورت من خلالها المشکلة البحثیة "وجود حاجه معرفیة حول خاصیة التعقید فی اشکال المبانی وما یرتبط بأبعادها التصمیمیة فی البیئات السکنیة". اما هدف البحث تمثل بتحدید أهم المفردات فی خاصیة التعقید للتنشیط الشکلی والعمرانی، وصولا الى بناء اطار نظری عن ابعاد التعقید فی البیئات السکنیة والتعقید فی المبانی. اما فرضیة البحث فتمثلت تُحقق خاصیة التعقید التنشیط الشکلی والعمرانی للمبانی والاحیاء السکنیة ضمن المدینة. اعتمد البحث المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی فی الإطار النظری، وتطبیقها ضمن الدراسة العملیة. أظهرت النتائج تحقیق مفردة ابعاد التعقید نسبة 89.83%، ومفردة التعقید فی المبانی بنسبة 86.05%. توصل البحث الى ان خاصیة التعقید تحقق التنشیط الشکلی ضمن المدینة کونها ترتبط بالغموض الشکلی ضمن التکوینات المعماریة لتحقق عمارة متناقضة تولد مستویات متعددة من المعانی.
 
 

Integration in Empowerment Strategies: Residential Investment as a Case Study

Waleed Al Sayyid; Safaaaldeen Hussein Ali

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 95-115
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.175717

The architect is the heart of the investment process. Consulting is a science and an art that only those who possess high taste, experience, and knowledge of the integrated elements that lead to the success of investment complexes. The research problem is the lack of comprehensive studies on integrating enabling strategies for residential investment projects. The research objective is to present a clear vision of integration in enabling residential investment complexes with utilitarian, aesthetic, and symbolic indicators. Accordingly, the hypothesis is that the strategy of allowing the housing unit and the housing complex is integrated for the success of enabling investment housing complexes. Achieving this required the construction of a theoretical framework consisting of two terms (the strategy of enabling the housing unit and the strategy of enabling the housing complex), which were employed in the practical study. For the residents, the study reached many conclusions and recommendations, including the success of the strategies for the two projects and the weakness of some vocabulary, including the symbolic, aesthetic, and utilitarian needs.
 
 
یعد المعماری بمثابة قلب العملیة الاستثماریة وان الاستشارة المعماریة علمٌ وفنٌ لا یستطیع تقدیمها الا من أمتلک الذوق العالی والخبرة ومعرفة العناصر المتکاملة التی تؤدی الى نجاح المجمعات الاستثماریة  ومن هنا تحددت المشکلة البحثیة: عدم شمولیة الدراسات السابقة عن التکامل فی استراتیجیات التمکین فی مشاریع الاستثمار السکنی، وتحدد هدف البحث: فی طرح تصور واضح عن التکامل فی استراتیجیات تمکین المجمعات السکنیة الاستثماریة بمؤشراتها النفعیة والجمالیة والرمزیة. ووفقا لذلک برزت فرضیة البحث: تتکامل استراتیجیة تمکین الوحدة السکنیة والمجمع السکنی لنجاح استراتیجیة تمکین المجمعات السکنیة الاستثماریة. وتطلب تحقیق ذلک بناء اطار نظری یتألف من مفردتین، هما: استراتیجیة تمکین الوحدة السکنیة، واستراتیجیة تمکین المجمع السکنی. تم توظیف الإطار التظری فی الدراسة العملیة وتم انتخاب مشروعی (بسمایة وبوابة العراق). توصلت الدراسة الى جملة من الاستنتاجات والتوصیات ومنها نجاح الاستراتیجیات للمشروعین وضعف فی بعض المفردات ومنها الحاجة الرمزیة، الجمالیة والنفعیة.
 

COVID-19 and Public Spaces: Improving Quality and Resilience for Healthier Places Case Study Liberty Square in Biskra

Hocine Boumaraf; Faiza DAHMOUCHE; Louisa Amireche

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 116-125
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.133370.1037

The current Covid-19 pandemic has interested the world, changing habits and use of places. During the lockdown period, public spaces became empty, and new urban landscapes replaced the previous ones, transforming the private into the public. Children, young and elderly people were those who mainly had problems: to them, real life was negated at the time of their life, which is more critical reopening all public spaces once again allowed social interactions “in the presence”, although with respect for physical distancing, confirming the importance of these places for all. Safe urban public spaces are essential due to their public health implications, especially during the COVID-19 epidemic. Considering the risks of virus transmission calls for thinking about how these urban spaces are designed. This work, therefore, looks at how to reconsider the design of urban landscape elements to control the transmission dynamics of COVID-19.
 
 

The Effect of the Sound Level Parameter on the Acoustic Performance in Shopping Centers

Shaymaa Hameed Abed; Kais Abdulhusein Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 126-138
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.134541.1046

The study focused on the objective measurement method of the sound level parameter, the geometrical formation, the observation of some acoustic properties, and their effectiveness for the atrium space in the Baghdad and Babylon shopping malls. In this study, a measurement of the sound level parameter was carried out to evaluate their acoustic performance and compare them with the standard standards required to be achieved in such buildings. The measurement process was conducted using a portable device SL-4112P that measures the sound level parameter SPL (A) and at a point on each floor around the atrium in both shopping centres for three minutes for each floor. The duration was determined according to previous studies. The measurement results of the average sound level values ​​for both commercial centres showed an increase in the average sound level value as the height of the floors increased. And it is relatively far from what should be achieved for acoustic comfort in this commercial building. It does not agree with what the Iraqi Code of Phonetics has specified for the appropriate sound level value (55-45 dBA). In such spaces.
 

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Journal Manager

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, In Press

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Continuous Productive Urban Landscape An Analytical study of Design Properties

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 12-23

The research had taken the concept of Continuous Productive Urban Landscape that appeared within the sustainable trends in the city, provides the opportunity to address the problems of lack in city open space, strengthen the relationship between the built environment and nature, access to multi-functional landscape.
Therefore, it request the need of research in this concept and determine its properties, so the research problem appeared, in the need of a theoretical framework for the properties of Continuous Productive Urban landscape, To help designers having its benefits in the design process.
Thus, the aim of this paper is to construct an inclusive theoretical framework of continuous productive urban landscape properties.
In order to solve the research problem, a previous literature review of the origin of the concept, has reached to the most important design properties of the Continuous Productive Urban landscape and determine the vocabularies and indicators relevant to it.
Then had been measured the validation values of the properties and its vocabularies and indicators, through analytic study for three projects had applied Continuous Productive Urban landscape within cities.
The results shown the variant in verification of these properties, coherence property emerged as a main design property, followed by integration then diversity.
Finally, had reached to a theoretical model for the properties of the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape in the city..

Intellectual immunity in architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 68-81

Architectural thought is defined as a final result of all principles and cognitive visions, which stored in human mind as a mental image, and reconfigured it to be fitting with all changes happened, that exposure the thought to all cognitive impurities (intellectual viruses), which may have a weakness and vulnerability. So immunity of thought protected it from such these impurities, when the research aims to enhance the immunity concept, and its levels of intellectual architectural process, while The research problem represented with a cognitive ambiguity of the immunity concept in the intellectual architectural process, that make the research follow an analytical method in two steps :theoretical one, is to define the concept of immunity, and the role of immunity levels in promote architectural output immunity. The research assumed is the immunity of designing productions increased when, the intellectual levels of the process (the design process) increase). Another step (practical step) is to analysis all Elective projects, leading to the immune architectural production, is a production which is compatible with the surrounding environment, whatever intellectual changes have taken place and acquired through that the continuity and longevity..

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

The Contemporary Affordable Housing The Principles of Contemporary Affordable Housing in Residential Buildings

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 82-96

Affordable Housing represents one of the main attitudes depended universally at the main time, to meet the developed housing need, which reflected on the development of the concept to what is called now the contemporary affordable housing which must be differentiated from the traditional affordable housing and determine its privacy according to architectural special thesis, and that brings research problem "there is a gap about the role of contemporary affordable housing principles in the development of residential in general and local projects". The research determined the main items reflected to the concept, which are represented by the contemporary affordable housing principles, site planning and the dwelling units. The research hypotheses was that "the site planning consideration and the dwelling unit have a role according to the contemporary affordable housing in international and local housing projects. The paper studied two examples, one of them is the national, and the other is the local, analyzed them according to the theoretical framework and finally submits the conclusions which shows the integration response system that achieves dimensions of housing development from residential units with high quality technological designs with suitable locations and sizes that achieve high density at low rise, connection to infrastructure, proximity to work and transportation..

The Effect of Urban Street Planting on Improving the Climate of Baghdad city

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 21-37

The aim of this research is to study the effect of tree planting on the reduction of thermal load of solar radiation falling on the area of Baghdad city and its contribution to weather treatments; since the temperature of green mass of trees is less than the human body and higher than air temperature in winter, so one expects condense tree plantation and foliage may participate in reducing air temperature in summer and could make the climate of the city to approach near the human temperature comfort limits .The impetus to encourage the authors to undertake the research is the positive results and indications derived from earlier authors' research work and that done by other researchers. Recent advances of modern scientific and technological in the field of electronic instrumentation measurements and sophisticated thermal imaging devices, which are expected to help in measurement and obtain temperature pattern of every point on the trees or at any point on block trees, besides measuring the thermal effect of shading on human body of people using the road (the camera has an accuracy of (0.1 oC).
In order to ensure high precision and optimum reliability of experimental results in the proposed work, experts from the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad were approached to assist in selecting one of the best suitable tree for Baghdad environment. Their choice was ( Albizia Lebbech ), and by the use of (GIS) photos of Baghdad city, the most suitable site to perform the experimental measurements in Baghdad city is chosen as the Baghdad University, in view of abundance of Albizia in addition to the availability of all other required variables. With the kind permission of the Presidency of Baghdad University, experiments have been performed on the 21st of June 2012, since this day has the highest amount of solar radiation all over the year The results and analysis have shown that there is a distinct effect of shading with trees in reducing temperature street air temperature and in providing better human effective temperature than shading the walkways with buildings . In an attempt to theoretically verify the extent of this impact on the entire city of Baghdad calculated, only the whole length of the main streets of Baghdad city are found by satellite images "GIS" ( within the boundaries of Municipality of Baghdad). It shows that the forestation process, including the effect of shading and evaporative cooling is equivalent to 45 million tones of refrigeration, which certainly will help in reducing the required energy for buildings' cooling . Therefore, the results will encourage in recommending forestation over all main streets as well as all streets in residential districts, which in return will change the whole climate of the city of Baghdad. ﯿﻬ ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤ

The Porous Formation in Contemperory Architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2018, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 75-91

The porosity is one of the concepts which is adopted in contemporary architecture to enhance the production of innovative and unique architectural configurations and forms. It is characterized by balance and integration to achieve the best environmental, aesthetic and functional standards in the architectural building, in line with the technical and technological progress.
The research problem was articulated as: the lack of comprehensive framework, of porous formation in terms of its nature, characteristics and rules of formation in contemporary architecture.
The aim of research is to introduce this knowledge by adopting the descriptive and analytical approach to a number of architectural studies in order to identify the main vocabulary that define the porous formation and its application to a number of selected projects that distinguish it by investing in the porous formation.
The research assumed the adoption of different formations with multiple and varied patterns according to various rules and mechanisms of formation.
The research reached to a set of theoretical and practical conclusions concerning the methods and rules of the adoption of the porous formation at different levelsshads as environmental treatment.
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Focalization as Strategy for the production and reading of contemporary architectural text

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2018, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 129-143

Research examines the concept of ethical imagination as one of the influential concepts in the architectural design process. Who is known as "the Architect's ability to think according to moral frameworks to become an important source and then to be the task of balancing the poetic and the disciplined imagination to produce an ethical architectural text that benefits the individual and society. ", thus be the research problem (implications of morally imaginative concept in architecture ). So the research aims to explain the basics of moral fiction in architecture, and we are on it. Research assumes that the foundations of moral fiction have an impact on the formulation of the architectural product . For the purpose of addressing the research issue and achieving the objectives of research and verification of its hypothesis, a knowledge framework was first built . Then a comprehensive theoretical framework for the imagination of the moral architecture extracted from the architectural propositions to be finalized in three main indicators is. Principles of moral constructional imagination, the foundations of moral and ethical imagination, moral logic of the Moral imagination architecture. Then apply them to elected projects to illustrate their impact on the architectural output and to arrive at conclusions that show the architectural imagination according its basics "

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

Fractal Rhythm In Local Architectural facades

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 25, Pages 105-126

The research focuses on local architectural facades in Baghdad and the chaos and
confusion ,Loosing the balance and order that these facades suffered from, due to
random and irresponsible architectural practices, with the emergence of the idea of fractional rhythm as
a regulatory tool achieves that exciting balance back between the extremes (contextual and disorder), the
research problem has Defined that there is no study diagnosed this confusion and anarchy in local
architectural facades in Baghdad based on the idea of fractional rhythm, on that base the research's goal
is to Identify practical procedures to reach to facades with fractional rhythm far from the anarchism and
confusing, to enrich back our local facades.
To achieve research's goal, a methodology has been determined to formulate a theoretical framework
for fractal rhythm which Sets fractional rhythm indicators and detailed variables through reviewing
studies and establishing a sufficient knowledge base to apply the abstract framework within an
exploratory study on Samples of elevations belong to local architectural heritage To examine the grade
of diversity and identify mechanisms adopted and the design characteristics (formal and substantive),
that achieved the distribution of fractional rhythm reaching to test these results on the two sets of
contemporary facades the first based on local heritage as Primary source of design when the second is
random design to support the results derived and Provide The final conclusions of the research that
provides treatment solutions to this disordered and chaotic reality in our contemporary local facades.

Excerption and inclusion in language and architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 16, Pages 129-150

Excerption and inclusion are two terms in Arabic rhetoric. The excerption is defined as a taking a part of text from Holly Quran or Hadith and put it in a poem, verse line, or put it in a prose text. But the linguistics expand the concept of this term to include taking from another sciences and knowledge, like Grammar, Philology, and Prosody.
Inclusion is defined as taking a verse line or part of verse line from another poet to put it in a new poem, it is necessary that the poet who take the text should declare it, and if he hides it, it will be plagiarism.
This search is use these two terms in architecture, we have now new two terms in architecture, first one; architectural excerption, it means the designer takes a part of religious or historical building and put it in his new design. The designer also can take from another sciences and knowledge, like physics, mathematics, or schools of modern criticism like deconstruction, to put his new design. The second term (architectural inclusion) means the designer takes a part of another modern design, neither religious nor historical, if he hides this, it is considered as architectural plagiarism.
The search proved that there are many architectural designs which include the meaning of these two terms.
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Digital ArchitectureStudying the formality characteristics of "digital architecture"

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 430-451

The digital revolution reflected on the architecture as it reflected on other scientific, living and social fields.
It's effects emerged clearly in the architectural form, Hence the architectural products did not stop at the design using the traditional methods and producing pictures using computer but exceeded to where the form produced as a result to the imagination design affected directly by the digital media. There is a clear lack of knowledge in this aspect on the academic and professional levels within our local modern digitalization society.
According the research problems was limited to "the lack of clear imagination of the forms characteristics for the digital architecture", and the research aimed to "specify the forms characteristics indications for the digital architecture".
To realize this goal some architectural studies were reviewed on two level, the first level being the architectural studies in relation to the analysis of the architectural forms to come out with general indications regarding the studies and form analysis, while the second level came out through reviewing these indicators in some studies that concerned the digital architecture and its forms resulting in main details, giving birth to the scope of understanding which were used later to test within projects defined by the architectural studies in owning the characteristics of digital forms and arriving to the final description to what the research concluded characteristics defined for the digital forms.
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The impact of laws and regulations in urban land management and urban Baghdad - A Case Study

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 48-64

To business management and operational control of reconstruction in the city of Baghdad, carried out through the legislative system consists of a set of laws, regulations and decisions issued by the various destinations and on successive phases, these laws had a direct impact on urban land use and urban development.And urban planning has a number of dimensions, including the legal dimension and the dimension of administrative and executive Urban in Iraq is subject to a number of dimensions by the departments and bodies and institutions is determined by regulations and the laws of multiple and conflicting with each other often, "which led to a lack of respect and lack of commitment by the result or resulted ina clear deterioration in the level of services currently provided "and confusion at the scene and the urban fabric in urban areas in Iraq in addition to the loss of a lot of effort and various resources.This research will address to the review and evaluation of laws and resolutions dealing with Ostamlat the ground and their relationship to the process of age of the city of Baghdad and the diversity of these laws and lack of comprehensiveness and opposes sometimes "may form a partnership heavy on action planning and the development and expansion of the city despite the positive role of the change in these laws in effect on features Urban of the city, to take the city of Baghdad as a case study for the application of those laws and see how they affect them. ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﯿﻬﺎ .

Excesses to permissions and building codes and their impact on the urban environment in Baghdad City

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 214-240

The spreading of the unregulated construction phenomenon in Iraq cities become a serious transgression of the regulations and legislation. The current master plan of Baghdad city no longer responsive to the actual needs of the city, It must be renovation to commensurate with the population growth and city development , so the research problem of this study states that: There are shortcomings in the existing laws and regulations that must keep pace with population, demographic and technology changes, legislation comprehensiveness and not tailored to the requirements of the laws and clauses are applicable, as well as the absence of the city townscape special controls. Based on these facts, the hypothesis of the present study is the importance of applying controls for construction legislation & cities master plan and not violating, by strengthening available means for the municipalities to limit the excesses, there are a number of promotive frames in long-term, and must be a quick and decisive decisions in short term.This study was conducted through a questionnaire survey for the technical staff involved in planning and the research concluded the extent of knowledge of those technical staff about the existence of the legislation and planning laws, their level, its comprehensiveness, its effectiveness, and the effectiveness of the procedures and the extent of its implementation and compliance with. At the end, the study makes recommendations and suggestions to improve the status.أصبح انتشار ظاىرة البناء العشوائي في مدن الع ا رق يشكل تجاو ا ز خطي ا ر للأنظمة والتشريعات، حيث ان المخطط الاساسي الحالي لمدينة بغداد الذي لم يعد ممبيا لمحاجات الفعمية لممدينة الامر الذي يجعل تحديث المخطط الاساسي ضرورة ليتناسب مع النمو السكاني والتطور الحاصل في المدينة.
تتمثل المشكمة البحثية في قصور القوانين والتشريعات الحالية لعدم مواكبتيا لمتغي ا رت السكانية والديموغ ا رفية والتكنولوجيا، شمولية التشريعات وعدم تفصيميا إلى قوانين واشت ا رطات وبنود قابمو لمتطبيق، وكذلك عدم وجود ض وابط خاصة بالمشيد الحضري لممدينة، وعميو كانت فرضية البحث ىي: أىمية تطبيق التشريعات الخاصة بضوابط البناء والمخططات الأساسية لممدن وعدم مخالفتيا من خلال تعزيز الوسائل المتاحة لدى البمديات لمحد من التجاو ا زت، وىناك عدد من الاطر التحسينية عمى المدى الطويل، ولابد من ق ا ر ا رت سريعة وحازمة عمى المدى القصير. اجريت الد ا رسة من خلال إعداد مسح إستبياني لمكوادر الفنية المشتغمة في العمل التخطيطي، اوستنتج البحث مدى معرفة ىذه الكوادر الفنية بوجود التشريعات والقوانين التخطيطية، مستواىا، شموليتيا، فعاليتيا، ومدى فعالية الإج ا رءات المتبعة ومدى تنفيذىا والتقيد بيا، وفي النياية قدمت
الد ا رسة توصيات واقت ا رحات لتحسين الوضع القائم.

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