About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning (IQJAP) is an applied/natural science peer-reviewed journal with interdisciplinary activity. The journal has been publishing since 2001 with the aim of making significant contributions to applied research and knowledge across the globe, especially Iraq and the Middle East, through publication of original, high-quality research articles in the following fields: Architectural Engineering Architectural History Environmental and Sustainable Design General Architecture: Design, Theory, Methods Historic Preservation and Conservation Interior...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  ijae@uotechnology.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Abdullah Saadoon Salman Almaamoori

Print ISSN: 2617-9547

Online ISSN: 2617-9555

Glitch Between Order and Chaos in the Products of Digital Architecture

Yusur Raed Mohsen; Basim Hasan Hashim

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.173702

The Digital development, philosophy and Intellect produced what is known as “digital architecture”, where architectural forms, mechanisms and materials have been developed also as a result of the digital progress. Digitization created new concepts, ideas and forms characterized by its unique and special features. The digital revolution changed the aesthetic concepts and Led to the emergence of " glitch "as a new aesthetic perception .Glitch can indicate a new opportunity and a spark of creative energy to indicate that something new is going to be generated, which is a combination of order and disorder, balance and chaos, reason and madness, a new product and new concept of chaos theory. The research problem was the (lake of knowledge in the concept of glitch between order and chaos and how it can be modified by the designer to be an organized chaos to create digital products characterized by originality and uniqueness). As such, the aim of the research is to demonstrate the relationship between glitch, order and chaos in digital architecture. The main vocabulary were extracted from this study and previous studies. Then, the practical application was conducted on some selected projects that deletes chaos concept to express aesthetic by using the concept of glitch, to aspects final conclusions related to glitch, which is considered as an organized chaos, and that the relationship between order and chaos is strong thus no order excited  without the presence of chaos.
 
افرز التطور الرقمی والفلسفة والفکر مایعرف "بالعمارة الرقمیة "حیث تطورت العمارة بشکل عام کاشکال والیات ومواد فأدت الرقمنه الى ظهور مفاهیم وافکار جدیدة تتماشى مع روح العصر وتولید اشکال متفردة ومتمیزة ، وان الثورة الرقمیة غیرت مفاهیم الجمال فادت بتطورها الى ظهور مفهوم الاضطراب کمفهوم جدید للتعبیر عن الجمال ، وان مفهوم الاضطراب یمکن أن یکشف عن فرصة جدیدة و شرارة من الطاقة الإبداعیة التی تشیر إلى أن شیئًا جدیدًا على وشک أن یتم إنشاؤه ، وانه عبارة عن جمع بین النظام واللانظام ، الاتزان والفوضى ، العقل والجنون ، وهو نتاج ومفهوم جدید لنظریة الفوضى. فکانت المشکلة البحثیة ( وجود فجوة معرفیة حول مفهوم الاضطراب بین النظام والفوضى وکیفیة تنظیمة من قبل المصمم لیکون عباره عن فوضى منظمة لتکوین نتاجات رقمیة تمتاز بالاصالة واالتفرد ) لیکون بذلک هدف البحث بیان علاقة الاضطراب بالنظام والفوضى فی نتاجات العمارة الرقمیة ، وقد تم استخلاص المفردات الرئیسیة من المفاهیم المتعلقة بالبحث والدراسات السابقة ومن ثم اجری التطبیق العملی على مشاریع منتخبة التی تتمیز بالفوضى ولکنها عبرت عن الجمال من خلال مفهوم الاضطراب  للوصول الى اهم الاستنتاجات النهائیة التی تخص الاضطراب الذی یعتبر فوضى منظمة و ان العلاقة بین النظام والفوضى هی علاقة قویة حیث لایمکن ان یوجد نظام الا بتواجد الفوضى 

Identity in Residential Neighbourhood: Analytical Study for Al_Jamea Community (627) Neighbourhood

Zahraa Ali; Sanaa Abbas

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 20-35
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.173358

This paper deals with the concept of identity in residential neighborhoods. The research problem is about a knowledge gap of identity in residential neighborhoods. Identity has been procedurally defined as: “It is formation, presence in place, and production in it. What is productive, is the activity of the immediate social-urban environment, in which we are raised. So the individual, and his existence is a background for his lived life. As for what he does, is his action, his touch on this existence. What he creates, is after his intellectual and visual processes in his immediate surroundings .It is sometimes considered as creation, repetition or “extension” of memory and feeling created in his context. Thus it will be denoted by what is existed and reformulated in his individual “subjective” state.
 The research aims to build a theoretical framework of identity in residential neighborhoods. The research hypothesis is that identity possesses characteristics, elements, and a function that is evaluated through a set of criteria. The research concluded that the inhabitant realizes his identity through a set of characteristics, elements and functions that the inhabitant evaluates according to a set of criteria that contributes in the realization of himself and his existence.
 

 
یتناول البحث مفهوم الهویة فی الاحیاء السکنیة، تحددت مشکلة البحث حول وجود فجوة معرفیة حول الهویة فی الاحیاء السکنیة، اذ تم تعریف الهویة اجرائیا بأنها: هی تکوین، تواجد فی المکان وإنتاجاً فیه. فما هو منتج هو نشاط المحیط الإجتماعی-الحضری المباشر الذی ننشأ فیه فیکون الفرد ویکوَن وجوده کخلفیة لحیاته المُعاشة، أما ما یقوم به ((ای ما ینتجه))، هو فعله، لمسته هو على هذا الوجود ومایکونه فیه، ما یخلقه هو بعد ان تمت علیه العملیات الفکریة والبصریة لما هو فی محیطه الخاص المباشر، فعمله ونتاجه الثقافی والجمالی سیغدو هویته ((الدال علیه)) وسیعرَفه ضمن المکان. أو الحیز المتواجد فیه وهو إذ یعتبر إبداعاً أحیاناً أو تکراراً ((إمتداداً)) لما هو مکون فیه من ذاکرة و إحساس خلقها (المحیط) فیها وبالتالی سیدل ((علیه)) بما هو علیه من وجود موجود ومُعاد صیاغته بحالته الفردویة ((الذاتیة)).
 یهدف البحث الى بناء اطار نظری یتعلق بالهویة فی الاحیاء السکنیة. یفترض البحث:بأن الهویة تمتلک خصائص، وعناصر، ووظیفة یتم تقییمها من خلال مجموعة من المعاییر. توصل البحث الى ان الساکن یدرک هویته من خلال مجموعة من الخصائص والعناصر والوظائف التی یقیمها الساکن وفق مجموعة من المعاییر التی تساهم فی ادراک ذاته ووجوده.

Ephemeralization and the Future of Economics in Contemporary Architecture: The Ephemeral Exhibitions are a Model التمعدن ومستقبل الاقتصاد فی العمارة المعاصرة :المعارض سریعة الزوال انموذجاً.

Tabark Hussein Ali; Basim Hasan Hashim Almajidi; Oday Abbas Abood

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 36-55
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.173359

The Research Deals with The Relationship of Architecture with The Economy and The Role of Ephemeralization In Determining It Through Investing in The Sustainability and Development of Resources and Architectural Elements. Different designs require the selection of materials, constructive solutions, visual perception, and spatial experience. The Product Is Characterized by General Principles, Including Flexibility, Adaptation, And Rapid Construction, Because Of Its Guiding Importance for The Future Development of Design, Which All Work to Reduce the Costs of The Economy. The Economics of the Most Stable Ephemeralization Architecture Tends to Use Multiple "Token Lives" That Change According to Context and Usage. As Was Mentioned, The Research Deals with The Ephemeral Exhibition Wings, To Apply the Concept of Ephemeralization To Obtain the Highest Economic Efficiency by Reducing Materials, Energy, And Time and Intervening for Its Sustainability to Solve the Research Problem Represented by The Knowledge Deficiency About the Role of Ephemeralization For the Development of The Economy in Architecture. The Research Method Is Represented by Several Procedures to Achieve the Goal of The Research and Solve the Research Problem by Building the Theoretical Framework and Selecting Application Samples for Different Wings to Reach the Conclusions.
 
یعالج البحث موضوعا مهماً ضمن علاقة العمارة بالاقتصاد وبیان دور التمعدن المؤقت فی تحدید تلک العلاقة من خلال استثمار استدامة وتنمیة الموارد والعناصر المعماریة، برز مصطلح التمعدن المؤقت والعمارة سریعة الزوال وتطور کمحور رئیسی فی جمیع النتاجات المعماریة فی الوقت الحاضر لیکون عنصراً هاماً ومثیرًا للجدل فی أبعاده من خلال عملیة تطویر الفضاءات المؤقتة المحددة للبیئات المؤقتة ونهج التصمیم المختلف ، وتتطلب اختیار المواد ، والحلول البناءة ، والإدراک البصری ، والخبرة المکانیة.لیتصف النتاج بمبادىء عامه منها المرونه والتکیف والانشاء السریع لما له من أهمیة إرشادیة للتطویر المستقبلی للتصمیم والتی تعمل جمیعها على تقلیل کلف الاقتصاد.اذ تمیل اقتصادیات عمارة التمعدن المؤقت الأکثر استقرارًا إلى استخدام "أعمار رمزیة" متعددة تتغیر وفقًا للسیاق واسس استخدامها. وکحالة تطبیقه لما ذکر یتناول البحث اجنحة المعارض سریعة الزوال ولما لها من أهمیة لیطبق مفهوم التمعدن فی الحصول على اعلى کفاءة اقتصادیة من خلال تقلیل(المواد،الطاقه،الوقت) والتدخل من اجل استدامتها. لحل المشکلة البحثیة التی تمثلت بـ: القصور المعرفی حول دور التمعدن لتنمیة الاقتصاد فی العمارة .و تمثل منهج البحث بعدة إجراءات لتحقیق هدف البحث وحل المشکله البحثیة من خلال بناء الاطار النظری وانتخاب عینات التطبیق لاجنحة مختلفه وصولاً الى الاستتاجات التی ابرزت دعم النشاط الاقتصادی کأقطاب سیاحیة توفر فرص حول العمل ضمن أنظمة سهلة وسریعة البناء والزوال.
 

Urban Dimensions of Pedestrian Bridges in Contemporary Urban Design Ideologies

Sarah Salih Yousif; Wahda Shuker Al-Hinkawi

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 56-68
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.174282

Many cities have witnessed intellectual changes regarding the process of renovating urban spaces, advocating the promotion of urban quality and sustainability, focusing on pedestrian movement, and emphasizing social interaction. These intellectual changes affected the design process of urban pedestrian bridges, which led to the emergence of new meanings and uses for them. Urban spaces started to have values ​​and meanings linked to the identity of the city. This research aims to determine the impact of these intellectual trends according to the ideologies of contemporary urban design. The research defines pedestrian bridges and contemporary urban ideologies and their importance as a research topic. Several studies were reviewed, the research problem emerged (the lack of comprehensive knowledge and cognitive perception of the urban dimensions of pedestrian bridges in general, and in contemporary design ideologies in particular). The research adopted the descriptive-analytical method in building the theoretical framework, and then the practical study included evaluating the local experience (Al-Kuraiat pedestrian bridge) in Baghdad according to a quantitative scale (experts questionnaire). The results of the survey showed that the local project achieved good values. Can be justified by another local experience, as this bridge is considered the first pedestrian bridge over the Tigris River.
 
 
شهدت العدید من المدن تغیرات فکریة على المستوى الحضری فیما یخص عملیة تجدید الفضاءات الحضریة والدعوة الى تعزیز الجودة الحضریة والاستدامة والترکیز على حرکة المشاة. أثرت هذه التغیرات الفکریة بدورها فی عملیة تصمیم جسور المشاة الحضریة مما ادى الى تولد معان واستخدامات جدیدة لها فأصبحت مساحات حضریة تحمل قیماً ومعانیاً ترتبط بهویة المدینة. یهدف هذا البحث الى تحدید تأثیر هذه التوجهات الفکریة وما تمثله فی ایدیولوجیات التصمیم الحضری المعاصر. یبدأ البحث بتعریف جسور المشاة والایدیولوجیة الحضریة المعاصرة واهمیتها کموضوع بحثی. تم استعراض ومناقشة مجموعة من الدراسات تبلورت من خلالها المشکلة البحثیة فی ""عدم شمولیة المعرفة لأبعاد جسور المشاة الحضریة بصورة عامة، وفی ایدیولوجیات التصمیم المعاصر بصورة خاصة""، والتی حدد على اساسها هدف البحث فی تحدید أهم المفردات الفاعلة فی جسور المشاة ضمن ایدیولوجیات التصمیم الحضری المعاصر، وصولا الى بناء اطار نظری شامل للجوانب الحضریة. اعتمد البحث المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی فی بناء الاطار النظری، ومن ثم تطبیقها ضمن الدراسة العملیة التی تضمنت تقیم التجربة المحلیة (جسر الکریعات للمشاة) فی بغداد وفق مقیاس کمی (استبیان الخبراء). أظهرت نتائج الاستبیان تحقیق المشروع المحلی قیماً جیدة. ویمکن تبریر ذلک بعد وجود تجربة محلیة اخرى، إذ یعد هذا الجسر کأول جسر للمشاة على نهر دجلة.

Inclusion and Minimalism in the Design of Health Laboratory Space

Sarah Al-Kazzaz; Mustafa Kadhim

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 69-89
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.174283

The ongoing emergence of new diseases that threaten the human race has resulted in the need to keep pace with the risk of infection through pursuing technological development and the emergence of new tests that are added to existing laboratories. The need is to find solutions that contribute to keeping pace with medical developments while accommodating patients' need for examinations on time while maintaining time and patient safety. The research assumes that international engineering standards will play a role in understanding and introducing this development by incorporating the concepts of merger and minimization by absorbing the new functions in the spaces while continuing to use the current spaces. By selecting a local hospital to conduct the practical study, the research aimed to evaluate local laboratories and their degree of compatibility with international standards by using merging and minimalism. To achieve minimalism while also having the option of future expansion and adding new vocabulary to the design.
 
 
الظهور المستمر للامراض الجدیدة التی تهدد الجنس البشری بصورة مستمرة ادت الى الحاجة لمواکبة خطر العدوى باستمرار التطور التکنولوجی وظهور الاختبارات الجدیدة التی تضاف الى المختبرات الموجودة، مما ادى الى الحاجة لایجاد حلول تساهم فی مواکبة التطورات الطبیة مع استیعاب حاجة المرضى للفحوصات فی الوقت المحدد دون التاثیر على الوقت وسلامة المریض. یفترض البحث ان للمعاییر الهندسیة العالمیة دور فی استیعاب هذا التطور وادخاله باعتماد مفاهیم الدمج والاختزال باستیعاب الوظائف الجدیدة فی الفضاءات مع استمرار الفضاءات الحالیة، فتبین وجود نقص فی الدراسات المحلیة التی تناولت مفهوم الدمج باستخدام المعاییر العالمیة الموحدة وکیفیة تحقیق الدمج لاختزال الفضاءات. یهدف البحث الى تقییم المختبرات المحلیة ودرجة توافقها مع المعاییر العالمیة باستخدام مفردتی الدمج والاختزال بانتخاب مستشفى محلی لاجراء الدراسة العملیة، واستنتجت الدراسة اهمیة تدرج الحرکة والاختزال داخل القسم المختبری لتنظیم حرکة المرضى داخل المختبر وفصلها عن حرکة الکادر للمحافظة على سلامة المرضى واهمیة مفردات مثل الاختزال الفکری ودمج الاجزاء لتحقیق الاختزال وامکانیة التوسع المستقبلی واضافة مفردات جدیدة للتصمیم.

The Role of Urban Memory in Reviving the Place ( Al-Rasheed Street is a Case Study )

Hanan Musa; Mufeed Ehsan Shok

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 90-105
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.174281

The concept of urban memory is one of the concepts that has received increasing attention in recent periods as countries race to form their own identity. The existing literature focused on the definition of urban elements in general and how to preserve buildings and exploit their memory to operate the building. Through this, the need for knowledge appears to detail these elements, as the research problem was chosen through (lack of) a clear perception of the role of urban memory elements in reviving the place.  The research goal emerged (exploring and categorizing the urban memory elements first, the criteria for success in reviving the second place, and the levels of the revival process. Through which we can apply this process thirdly, and as a result, the approach consists of several selected stages; first: building the theoretical framework from the keywords that were elected. They are (elements of urban memory, performance standards, activation levels), and their method was determined, and the sample represented in Al-Rasheed Street was selected, where the questionnaire was relied on to add people's memory to the place and represented them in urban elements, and finally the results were discussed at the theoretical and applied levels.
 
 
یعد مفهوم الذاکرة الحضریة أحد المفاهیم التی حظیت باهتمام متزاید فی الفترة الأخیرة، حیث تتسابق الدول لتشکیل هویتها الخاصة. رکزت الأدبیات الموجودة على تعریف العناصر الحضریة بشکل عام، وکیفیة الحفاظ على المبانی واستغلال ذاکرتها لتشغیل المبنى، ومن خلال ذلک تظهر الحاجة إلى المعرفة لتفصیل هذه العناصر، حیث تم اختیار مشکلة البحث من خلال (نقص) تصور واضح لدور عناصر الذاکرة الحضریة فی إحیاء المکان) وبرز هدف البحث (استکشاف عناصر الذاکرة الحضریة وتصنیفها أولاً، ومعاییر النجاح فی إحیاء المرکز الثانی، ومستویات عملیة الإحیاء. یمکننا من خلالها تطبیق هذه العملیة ثالثًا ونتیجة لذلک یتکون المنهج من عدة مراحل تم اختیارها، أولاً: بناء الإطار النظری من الکلمات الرئیسیة التی تم انتخابها هی (عناصر الذاکرة الحضریة، معاییر الأداء، مستویات التنشیط)  و تم تحدید طریقتها واختیار العینة الممثلة فی شارع الرشید حیث تم الاعتماد على الاستبیان لإضافة ذاکرة الناس للمکان. وتمثیلها فی العناصر الحضریة وأخیرا تمت مناقشة النتائج  على المستویین النظری والتطبیقی.

Design determinants of Discrete digital surfaces المحددات التصمیمیة للسطوح الرقمیة المتقطعة

Ali Mohsen Al-khafaji; Shahad Alaa Soud

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 106-120
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.174381

           The emergence of many free structures in contemporary architecture and the transformation in aesthetics toward complex curved and folded shapes has led to a search for computer-aided design and geometric manipulations using discrete surfaces, which contributed to the creation of complex architectural surfaces that are both simple and economical at the same time. However, it is difficult to achieve such surfaces because of the complexity of representing them in an applicable and executable engineering body  , and the hardship of studying and representing them structurally for they need a set of special engineering programs to obtain the required structural strength. Further, There is aneed for other engineering programs To simplify those surfaces and turn them into applicable ones. Hence, the research problem emerged to shed light on the "lack of a theoretical perception describing discrete surfaces and their role in formation the structure of contemporary architecture." The research initially dealt with the general knowledge of the discrete surfaces, and then extracted the theoretical framework relying on  our knowledge about those surfaces, through presenting and analyzing three architectural examples to clarify the nature of those discrete surfaces and submit the main conclusions, recommendations and sources.
 
أدى ظهور الهیاکل الحرة فی العمارة المعاصرة العدیدة والتحول فی الجمالیات نحو الأشکال المنحنیة والمطویة المعقدة إلى البحث عن التصمیم بمساعدة الحاسوب والمعالجات الهندسیة بإستخدام السطوح المنفصلة (المتقطعة)، حیث ساهمت فی إنشاء السطوح المعماریة المعقدة والتی تعتبر بسیطة واقتصادیة فی الوقت نفسه. وعلى الرغم من ذلک یصعب تحقیق هذه السطوح بسبب صعوبة تمثلیها بهیئة هندسیة قابلة للتطبیق والتنفیذ ولتعقید دراستها وتمثیلها إنشائیاً حیث تحتاج إلى مجموعة من البرامج الهندسیة الخاصة لغرض تحقیق المتانة الإنشائیة المطلوبة، وبالإضافة إلى أنها تحتاج برامج هندسیة أخرى لغرض لتبسیط هذه السطوح إلى مجموعة من الأجزاء القابلة للتنفیذ. لذلک برزت المشکلة البحثیة والمتمثلة فی " عدم وجود تصور نظری یصف السطوح المتقطعة ودورها فی تشکیل بُنیة العمارة المعاصرة". إذ تناول البحث فی البدایة الإطار المعرفی للسطوح المتقطعة، ومن ثم إستخلاص الإطار النظری من خلال المعرفة المطروحة عنها، وتم بعد ذلک طرح وتحلیل ثلاثة أمثلة معماریة لتوضیح طبیعة السطوح المتقطعة ومن ثم طرح الاستنتاجات الرئیسیة التوصیات والمصادر.
 

Topological Characteristics of an Architectural Product الخصائص الطوبولوجیة للنتاج المعماری

Ahmed Mahir Rashid; Abdullah Saadoon Almaamoori

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 121-134
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.132484.1018

Topology or spatial science is one of the branches of modern mathematics that cast a shadow over various cognitive sciences, including architecture, as it began to overgrow in the contemporary digital age to make room for more creativity and structural design and implementation capabilities. Yet, the characteristics of this concept are still uncommon in the architectural community and the previous studies that dealt with it in fragmentary and separate concepts. Accordingly, the research problem is “the ambiguity of knowledge about the topological characteristics of contemporary architectural products.” The research seeks to form a comprehensive theoretical framework on the topological characteristics represented by flexibility, fluidity and integration. These characteristics were generated by influential topological theories and previous studies that dealt with this concept, such as adaptation theory, knot theory and symmetry theory. Its concepts and vocabulary helped establish a formative structure in contemporary architectural products and then applied this to the selected samples. It resulted in a knowledge base that allows designers to gain more creativity, uniqueness and inspiration, depending on the descriptive-analytical approach.
 
 
الطوبولوجیا أو علم المکان هو أحد فروع الریاضیات الحدیثة التی ألقت بظلالها على مختلف العلوم المعرفیة ومنها العمارة. حیث بدأ ینمو بشکل متسارع فی العصر الرقمی المعاصر لیفسح المجال لمزید من الإبداع والقدرة التصمیمیة والتنفیذیة الهیکلیة، لکن خصائص هذا المفهوم مازالت غیر شائعة فی الأوساط المعماریة والدراسات السابقة التی تناولتها بشکل مجتزء وبمفاهیم منفصلة، علیه تم تحدید المشکلة البحثیة بـ " غموض المعرفة حول الخصائص الطوبولوجیة للنتاجات المعماریة المعاصرة "حیث یسعى البحث الى تکوین إطار نظری شامل عن الخصائص الطوبولوجیة المتمثلة بـ المرونة والسیولة والتکاملیة والتی تولدت من بعض النظریات الطوبولوجیة المؤثرة التی تناولت هذا المفهوم مثل نظریة التطویع ونظریة العقدة ونظریة التماثل بما تحتویه من مفاهیم ومفردات ساعدت فی تأسیس بنیة تشکیلیة وتکوینیة فی النتاجات المعماریة المعاصرة، من ثم تطبیق ذلک على العینات المنتخبة، لینتج عنه قاعدة معرفیة تفسح المجال للمصممین لمزید من الإبداع والتفرد والإلهام وذلک إعتماداً على المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی .
 

Improving Social Interaction in Vertical Housing تحسین التفاعل الاجتماعی فی السکن العمودی: مشروع بسمایة حالة دراسیة

Lubna A. Kadhim; Mufeed Ehsan Shok

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2022, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 135-144
DOI: 10.36041/iqjap.2022.174520

Iraq is witnessing an increasing population growth and an influx of migration from the countryside to the city. With the lack of urban lands, vertical housing has become the final solution to this problem. However, until recently, Iraqis have rejected vertical housing, and perhaps the most important reasons are social reasons. Through previous studies, it was found that the problem of social interaction is one of the most prominent problems in vertical housing. Thus, residents of vertical residential buildings achieved lower rates of social interaction than residents of single apartment buildings. The research uses a descriptive analysis method based on the vocabulary of the theoretical framework extracted from previous studies. Bismaya New City Project was chosen for the practical research because it was implemented after 2013 and because of the need for a number of design and planning mechanisms and strategies that contribute to its development and thus improve the level of social interaction in the city. The study indicated a difference in the ratios of the indicators of the theoretical framework, and the largest percentage was for the unrealized vocabulary. Therefore, the focus should be on planning and design factors that will increase the chances of an encounter between residents and complete horizontal social spaces with vertically connected social axes.
 
 
یشهد العراق نموًا سکانیًا متزایدًا وتدفقًا للهجرة من الریف إلى المدینة، ومع قلة الاراضی الحضریة اصبح السکن العمودی هو الحل النهائی لهذه المشکلة, لکن العراقیون الى وقت قریب یرفضون السکن العمودی ولعل اهم الاسباب هی اسباب اجتماعیة، فمن خلال الدراسات السابقة  تبین ان مشکلة التفاعل الاجتماعی واحدة من ابرز المشاکل فی السکن العمودی، حیث وجد أن المقیمین فی المبانی السکنیة العمودیة حققوا معدلات تفاعل اجتماعی أقل من سکان المبانی السکنیة المفردة، لذلک یهدف البحث الى (تقییم مجمع بسمایة السکنی لتحسین التفاعل الاجتماعی، من اجل انشاء مبانی سکنیة عمودیة مترابطة اجتماعیا)، واعتمد البحث اسلوب التحلیل الوصفی اعتماداّ على مفردات الاطار النظری التی تم استخلاصها من الدراسات السابقة، وتم اختیار مشروع مدینة بسمایة الجدیدة للدراسة العملیة، لتنفیذها ما بعد عام 2013 وحاجتها الى عدد من الألیات والستراتیجیات التصمیمة والتخطیطیة التی تساهم فی تطویرها وبالتالی تحسین مستوى التفاعل الاجتماعی فی هذه المدینة، أشارت نتائج البحث إلى وجود اختلاف فی نسب مؤشرات الإطار النظری وأن النسبة الأکبر کانت للمفردات غیر المحققة، ولزیادة التفاعل الاجتماعی فی حالة الدراسة المختارة، یجب الترکیز على عوامل التخطیط والتصمیم التی من شأنها تطویر الإسکان العمودی من أجل تحقیق مستویات متزایدة من التفاعل وزیادة فرص اللقاء بین السکان. 
 

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The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, In Press

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Continuous Productive Urban Landscape An Analytical study of Design Properties

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 12-23

The research had taken the concept of Continuous Productive Urban Landscape that appeared within the sustainable trends in the city, provides the opportunity to address the problems of lack in city open space, strengthen the relationship between the built environment and nature, access to multi-functional landscape.
Therefore, it request the need of research in this concept and determine its properties, so the research problem appeared, in the need of a theoretical framework for the properties of Continuous Productive Urban landscape, To help designers having its benefits in the design process.
Thus, the aim of this paper is to construct an inclusive theoretical framework of continuous productive urban landscape properties.
In order to solve the research problem, a previous literature review of the origin of the concept, has reached to the most important design properties of the Continuous Productive Urban landscape and determine the vocabularies and indicators relevant to it.
Then had been measured the validation values of the properties and its vocabularies and indicators, through analytic study for three projects had applied Continuous Productive Urban landscape within cities.
The results shown the variant in verification of these properties, coherence property emerged as a main design property, followed by integration then diversity.
Finally, had reached to a theoretical model for the properties of the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape in the city..

Intellectual immunity in architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 68-81

Architectural thought is defined as a final result of all principles and cognitive visions, which stored in human mind as a mental image, and reconfigured it to be fitting with all changes happened, that exposure the thought to all cognitive impurities (intellectual viruses), which may have a weakness and vulnerability. So immunity of thought protected it from such these impurities, when the research aims to enhance the immunity concept, and its levels of intellectual architectural process, while The research problem represented with a cognitive ambiguity of the immunity concept in the intellectual architectural process, that make the research follow an analytical method in two steps :theoretical one, is to define the concept of immunity, and the role of immunity levels in promote architectural output immunity. The research assumed is the immunity of designing productions increased when, the intellectual levels of the process (the design process) increase). Another step (practical step) is to analysis all Elective projects, leading to the immune architectural production, is a production which is compatible with the surrounding environment, whatever intellectual changes have taken place and acquired through that the continuity and longevity..

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

The Contemporary Affordable Housing The Principles of Contemporary Affordable Housing in Residential Buildings

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 82-96

Affordable Housing represents one of the main attitudes depended universally at the main time, to meet the developed housing need, which reflected on the development of the concept to what is called now the contemporary affordable housing which must be differentiated from the traditional affordable housing and determine its privacy according to architectural special thesis, and that brings research problem "there is a gap about the role of contemporary affordable housing principles in the development of residential in general and local projects". The research determined the main items reflected to the concept, which are represented by the contemporary affordable housing principles, site planning and the dwelling units. The research hypotheses was that "the site planning consideration and the dwelling unit have a role according to the contemporary affordable housing in international and local housing projects. The paper studied two examples, one of them is the national, and the other is the local, analyzed them according to the theoretical framework and finally submits the conclusions which shows the integration response system that achieves dimensions of housing development from residential units with high quality technological designs with suitable locations and sizes that achieve high density at low rise, connection to infrastructure, proximity to work and transportation..

The Effect of Urban Street Planting on Improving the Climate of Baghdad city

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 21-37

The aim of this research is to study the effect of tree planting on the reduction of thermal load of solar radiation falling on the area of Baghdad city and its contribution to weather treatments; since the temperature of green mass of trees is less than the human body and higher than air temperature in winter, so one expects condense tree plantation and foliage may participate in reducing air temperature in summer and could make the climate of the city to approach near the human temperature comfort limits .The impetus to encourage the authors to undertake the research is the positive results and indications derived from earlier authors' research work and that done by other researchers. Recent advances of modern scientific and technological in the field of electronic instrumentation measurements and sophisticated thermal imaging devices, which are expected to help in measurement and obtain temperature pattern of every point on the trees or at any point on block trees, besides measuring the thermal effect of shading on human body of people using the road (the camera has an accuracy of (0.1 oC).
In order to ensure high precision and optimum reliability of experimental results in the proposed work, experts from the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad were approached to assist in selecting one of the best suitable tree for Baghdad environment. Their choice was ( Albizia Lebbech ), and by the use of (GIS) photos of Baghdad city, the most suitable site to perform the experimental measurements in Baghdad city is chosen as the Baghdad University, in view of abundance of Albizia in addition to the availability of all other required variables. With the kind permission of the Presidency of Baghdad University, experiments have been performed on the 21st of June 2012, since this day has the highest amount of solar radiation all over the year The results and analysis have shown that there is a distinct effect of shading with trees in reducing temperature street air temperature and in providing better human effective temperature than shading the walkways with buildings . In an attempt to theoretically verify the extent of this impact on the entire city of Baghdad calculated, only the whole length of the main streets of Baghdad city are found by satellite images "GIS" ( within the boundaries of Municipality of Baghdad). It shows that the forestation process, including the effect of shading and evaporative cooling is equivalent to 45 million tones of refrigeration, which certainly will help in reducing the required energy for buildings' cooling . Therefore, the results will encourage in recommending forestation over all main streets as well as all streets in residential districts, which in return will change the whole climate of the city of Baghdad. ﯿﻬ ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤ

Focalization as Strategy for the production and reading of contemporary architectural text

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2018, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 129-143

Research examines the concept of ethical imagination as one of the influential concepts in the architectural design process. Who is known as "the Architect's ability to think according to moral frameworks to become an important source and then to be the task of balancing the poetic and the disciplined imagination to produce an ethical architectural text that benefits the individual and society. ", thus be the research problem (implications of morally imaginative concept in architecture ). So the research aims to explain the basics of moral fiction in architecture, and we are on it. Research assumes that the foundations of moral fiction have an impact on the formulation of the architectural product . For the purpose of addressing the research issue and achieving the objectives of research and verification of its hypothesis, a knowledge framework was first built . Then a comprehensive theoretical framework for the imagination of the moral architecture extracted from the architectural propositions to be finalized in three main indicators is. Principles of moral constructional imagination, the foundations of moral and ethical imagination, moral logic of the Moral imagination architecture. Then apply them to elected projects to illustrate their impact on the architectural output and to arrive at conclusions that show the architectural imagination according its basics "

The Activation Mechanisms of Co-Housing Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 24-37

The interesting in organizing residential complex is the most important challenges facing the process of social, economic and environmental development issues, therefore, the work on solving design, planning and organizational problems is one of the most important issues currently under discussion, in view of the fact that the population should not only be targets for development but real participants, and not to isolate community participation, waiting for the right moment for its development, or to put it in its proper framework. This study deals with community participation in housing design from the conceptual and applied aspects and analysis of the interaction between the community and the different degrees of participation. The analysis included studies dealing with participatory design for a variety of purposes, to build a knowledge base and to develop mechanisms that can be used when undertaking housing projects, the general approch of the research is to study the concept of participatory design in the cognitive aspects and explore its privacy in the buildings of residential complexes, the research problem identified as a knowledge gap about the concept of participatory design in the design and planning of residential complexes, the research assumes that the level of usre self-selection determines the participatory space pattern and the mechanism used in the co-design, the research found that there is a multiplicity of concepts of co-housing design and therefore multiple mechanisms of dealing with residential participatory space. It is sometimes takeing the concept of (Collarborative Housing); its mechanism of residential participatory space design is (mixed uses) space to create interaction and partnership between the residents of the complex. And sometimes the concept of (Collective Housing), (which adopts the space saving mechanism for some semi-private residential activities such as food places, living space, children's play space, etc., will be removed from the apartments to be shared with residents of the complex as public spaces participatory, in return for the provision of other residential spaces (Save and Share)). The level of high user self-selection at the design stage has determined the preference collarborative space pattren in residential complexes within the local environment. .

Fractal Rhythm In Local Architectural facades

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 25, Pages 105-126

The research focuses on local architectural facades in Baghdad and the chaos and
confusion ,Loosing the balance and order that these facades suffered from, due to
random and irresponsible architectural practices, with the emergence of the idea of fractional rhythm as
a regulatory tool achieves that exciting balance back between the extremes (contextual and disorder), the
research problem has Defined that there is no study diagnosed this confusion and anarchy in local
architectural facades in Baghdad based on the idea of fractional rhythm, on that base the research's goal
is to Identify practical procedures to reach to facades with fractional rhythm far from the anarchism and
confusing, to enrich back our local facades.
To achieve research's goal, a methodology has been determined to formulate a theoretical framework
for fractal rhythm which Sets fractional rhythm indicators and detailed variables through reviewing
studies and establishing a sufficient knowledge base to apply the abstract framework within an
exploratory study on Samples of elevations belong to local architectural heritage To examine the grade
of diversity and identify mechanisms adopted and the design characteristics (formal and substantive),
that achieved the distribution of fractional rhythm reaching to test these results on the two sets of
contemporary facades the first based on local heritage as Primary source of design when the second is
random design to support the results derived and Provide The final conclusions of the research that
provides treatment solutions to this disordered and chaotic reality in our contemporary local facades.

Developing a Conceptual Framework for Bridging the Gap Between (theory and practical) in Urban Design

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 452-465

There is confusion in professionals for the field of urban design results from the interactive nature of the
relationship between the (Idea) and presnting it in a communication language. The problem becomes more
complicated when shaping the (Concept) and the transition from the conceptual level to the next level applied.
So the main focus of current research on the statement of what the idea and concept, and the transition
mechanisms towards the application of the components of the process of urban design. It aims to search out the
mechanics and easier the process of communication between the parties of jurisdiction over the application level
and the level of education for the profession . .
Search as it tries to develop the basic ideas to move the concepts of urban design to the level applied. As the
research found that these concepts are broad and it needs to measurable indicators and to be aware of and
measurable indicators should contain realistic.
The search is based on the premise: (a real confusion between the idea and the concept (theoretically and
practically), including a direct impact on professional and academic groups within the field of urban design, in
terms of the ability to put ideas and presenting them).
Despite the fact that urban design is strongly related to applied science and experimental witch end with
objective product to bring jobs and human need. But the idea is part of very special in the field of urban design,
but it's the nature of the designer within the stages of preparation to do, but that there is no need to be followed
by the employer through the steps of the design process, the idea in any case be found behind the work, does not
matter However, the competent Fahim. If this view is important in practice, but what is happening already on the
level of education, indicates the presence of a missing link between teacher and student; represented in learning
to ask and formulate ideas and presnting, which weakens the possibility of create excellence urban product. .

Excerption and inclusion in language and architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 16, Pages 129-150

Excerption and inclusion are two terms in Arabic rhetoric. The excerption is defined as a taking a part of text from Holly Quran or Hadith and put it in a poem, verse line, or put it in a prose text. But the linguistics expand the concept of this term to include taking from another sciences and knowledge, like Grammar, Philology, and Prosody.
Inclusion is defined as taking a verse line or part of verse line from another poet to put it in a new poem, it is necessary that the poet who take the text should declare it, and if he hides it, it will be plagiarism.
This search is use these two terms in architecture, we have now new two terms in architecture, first one; architectural excerption, it means the designer takes a part of religious or historical building and put it in his new design. The designer also can take from another sciences and knowledge, like physics, mathematics, or schools of modern criticism like deconstruction, to put his new design. The second term (architectural inclusion) means the designer takes a part of another modern design, neither religious nor historical, if he hides this, it is considered as architectural plagiarism.
The search proved that there are many architectural designs which include the meaning of these two terms.
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Digital ArchitectureStudying the formality characteristics of "digital architecture"

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 430-451

The digital revolution reflected on the architecture as it reflected on other scientific, living and social fields.
It's effects emerged clearly in the architectural form, Hence the architectural products did not stop at the design using the traditional methods and producing pictures using computer but exceeded to where the form produced as a result to the imagination design affected directly by the digital media. There is a clear lack of knowledge in this aspect on the academic and professional levels within our local modern digitalization society.
According the research problems was limited to "the lack of clear imagination of the forms characteristics for the digital architecture", and the research aimed to "specify the forms characteristics indications for the digital architecture".
To realize this goal some architectural studies were reviewed on two level, the first level being the architectural studies in relation to the analysis of the architectural forms to come out with general indications regarding the studies and form analysis, while the second level came out through reviewing these indicators in some studies that concerned the digital architecture and its forms resulting in main details, giving birth to the scope of understanding which were used later to test within projects defined by the architectural studies in owning the characteristics of digital forms and arriving to the final description to what the research concluded characteristics defined for the digital forms.
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The impact of laws and regulations in urban land management and urban Baghdad - A Case Study

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 48-64

To business management and operational control of reconstruction in the city of Baghdad, carried out through the legislative system consists of a set of laws, regulations and decisions issued by the various destinations and on successive phases, these laws had a direct impact on urban land use and urban development.And urban planning has a number of dimensions, including the legal dimension and the dimension of administrative and executive Urban in Iraq is subject to a number of dimensions by the departments and bodies and institutions is determined by regulations and the laws of multiple and conflicting with each other often, "which led to a lack of respect and lack of commitment by the result or resulted ina clear deterioration in the level of services currently provided "and confusion at the scene and the urban fabric in urban areas in Iraq in addition to the loss of a lot of effort and various resources.This research will address to the review and evaluation of laws and resolutions dealing with Ostamlat the ground and their relationship to the process of age of the city of Baghdad and the diversity of these laws and lack of comprehensiveness and opposes sometimes "may form a partnership heavy on action planning and the development and expansion of the city despite the positive role of the change in these laws in effect on features Urban of the city, to take the city of Baghdad as a case study for the application of those laws and see how they affect them. ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﯿﻬﺎ .

The local features in the Islamic architecture

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 19, Pages 234-255

Islamic architecture has spread in a wide geographical regions, covering many areas and cities with distinct civilizations, Most of these areas and cities imposed their local architectural features on the forms of Islamic buildings in these areas due to the flexibility that characterized the process of composition output of Islamic architecture represented in different functional patterns as mosques, palaces, schools, baths and markets.
This paper tries to study in-depth the existence of these local features and its assets in a range of distinct civilized areas covered by Islamic architecture. Reviewing previous studies concerning the research topic revealed the problem of the research which was the absence of enough theoretical knowledge about the details of local features in the Islamic architecture models, Thus, the research made it its goal to determine impact of these features on Islamic architecture and to disclose the process of employing it in the Islamic architecture buildings. To achieve this goal, the research adopted an approach with a number of steps: first, determining a theoretical framework with a collection of detailed vocabulary for studying the impact of local features, as the types of local features, the types of processing these features, and locations of the impact of them within the building, and the nature of the functions performed by these features, Then the application of this theoretical framework on mosques buildings in Islamic architecture in a group of areas with distinct civilizations and up to analyze the results and determine the deductions.
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