A Scale For Building Compactness
The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning,
2001, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 81-101
Compactness in the architectural design means the interrelation and interlocking ofthe building spaces, in contrast to compactness, is the looseness. conrpactness in this paper is defined as the sum of the square roots of the areas ofthe buildine spaces devided bv its oerimeter. The optimum shape ofresidential buildinss in hot dry climates as the_majority of researchers suggests; is that shape u''hich has a maximum voffi; such a shape can be called a compact one but ithout mentioning a definite value to its compactness that is because the available scale is a descriptive one. So it seems clear the imporlance of availability of a quantitative scale to this variable rvhich is the aim ofthis paper. in addition. the scale can help in the early prediction ofbuildine cost before design.
In order to evaluate the compactness for a certain design in a defined site. it is required to compare its conpactness 10 the compactness ofa model having sanre properlies; number of spaces. areas and the sile. The model compactness is called the (ldeal Compactness). rvhen the model follows the four conditions mensioned belorv. By deviding the compactness of any design to its ideal compactness we get tlle (Relative compactness) which defines the level ofcompactness ofa building in a certain site. The model consist of a variable number of equal square areas called the nonrinal spaies, which gathers in groups follow''ing these conditions: l- The perimeter of a certain number of these spaces is minimum. 2- Any positive nominal space should have an extemal side its length should not be less than % side ofthe nominal space. 3- Minimum dimension of the negative space = % side of the nominal space. 4- Compactness should vary positively, when the number of nominal space varies positively too.
It uas checked if the model is equivalent to the buildine by examining the differences between them. The values of the ideal compactness for the model are calculated and the curves showing the variation ofideal compactness in respect to Number of nominal spaces and to site rvidth.
and having the values ofrelative compactness which varies from (66) to (1 l8). The designs having values of relative compactness more or less than 100 are compact or loose altematively according to their values. So, the scale can be adopted to calculate compaclness. Key Words: Building compactness, Architectural design, relative compactness, optimuntshape. housing. Hot dry climate.
یقصد بالتکامل فی هذا البحث تداخل وتقارب فضاءات المبنى وبعکسه: التفکک و یعنی تباعد تلک الفضاءات. یعرف التکامل بأنه مجمو الجذور التربیعیة لمساحات فضاءات . معین مقسوما - محیطه الخار
یتفق اغلب الباحثین بأن الشکل الأمثل للأبنیة السکنیة فی المناطق الحارة الجافة هو الذی یمتلک اقل مساحة سطحیة وان شکلا کهذا یمکن ان نطلق علیه انه اکثر تکاملا ولکن دون تحدید قیمته، اذ ان المقیاس المتوفر للتکامل هو مقیاس وصفی حیث تبرز اهمیة وضع مقیاس کمی لهذا المتغیر وهو هدف هذا البحث.
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