Print ISSN: 2617-9547

Online ISSN: 2617-9555

Main Subjects : Urban and Regional Planning


Urban Strategies for Managing the Coronavirus Crisis

Mohammad Alaa Al-Jafan; Soulaiman Mhanna

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 24-41

The management of the spread of the Coronavirus crisis is one of the main challenges in the world today, and of increasing importance due to the widespread spread of the epidemic and its negative repercussions on local communities around the world, which put local administrations on the front lines to address the pandemic and take the lead in mitigating its effects. The article attempts to develop a theoretical and applied model to manage the crisis of the outbreak of the Coronavirus in urban areas by monitoring and analyzing the forms of local administrations' response to the pandemic and mitigating its negative repercussions on local communities and the health of the population. The article is also considered a scientific contribution learned from global experiences in pandemic management by formulating a scientific methodology in the form of urban strategies and clarifying their direct objectives, stages of work, and their application methods at the urban level to serve as a base on which local administrations rely in their work to reach the recovery stage.
 
 
تعتبر إدارة أزمة انتشار فیروس کورونا إحدى التحدیات الرئیسیة فی العالم الیوم، وذات أهمیة متزایدة نظراً للانتشار الواسع للوباء وتداعیاته سلبیة على المجتمعات المحلیة وصحة السکان فی جمیع أنحاء العالم، الأمر الذی وضع الإدارات المحلیة فی الخطوط الأمامیة للتصدی للجائحة وتولی زمام المبادرة فی التخفیف من أثارها. ویحاول البحث وضع نموذج تطبیقی لإدارة أزمة تفشی فیروس کورونا فی المناطق الحضریة من خلال رصد وتحلیل أشکال استجابة الإدارات المحلیة للجائحة. کما یعد البحث مساهمة علمیة مستفادة من التجارب العالمیة فی إدارة الجائحة من خلال صیاغة منهجیة علمیة على شکل استراتیجیات حضریة وتوضیح أهدافها المباشرة ومراحل عملها، وآلیاتها التطبیقیة على المستوى الحضری لتکون بمثابة قاعدة تستند علیها الإدارات المحلیة فی عملها وصولاً إلى مرحلة التعافی.
 
 

Development measures for slums of Dhaka city : Case study area Korail slum

Sanjida Ahmed Sinthia

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 42-55

Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh is extremely populated, unhygienic and environmentally degraded city. The growing number of population and environmental degradation are due to natural disaster and economic depression. As a result, the rate of urban poor is and producing huge pressure on urban lands, housing and infrastructure. Due to limited resources these poor people encroached open spaces, wetlands, vacant plots or even footpath for shelter. They don’t have any access to proper job market, healthcare facilities, education and sanitation either. These constraints are mostly resulted from the failures of the government in initiation proper policies and measures. Past policies of slum clearance, modernist apartment projects, housing provision, self-help, sites and services, and in-situ upgrading have not been effective at solving the crisis. This is now prime time to established planning and environmental management policy and sustainable development of the city area. Urban land management, rehabilitation and socio-economic development of the slum dwellers are also very important issues. The key focus of this paper is to find out sustainable development process for urban slum dwellers and build sustainable living place for them which are free from eviction, criminals, rent seekers and other miscreants.

Low-Income Housing Provision: Between Governmental Interventions And Informal Settlements - Greater Cairo Region Between 1980s And 2010s

Hussaen Ali Hasan Kahachi; Alison Brown

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2020, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 39-50

Low-cost housing, so-called affordable housing, is an important subject as it affects many aspects of people's well-being and city planning. The urban poor, who form a respectable percentage of cities' residents in many developing countries, are the most affected segment by the availability and affordability of housing. Governments often try their best to provide affordable housing through housing interventions and programs. However, many low-income people end up in informal settlements including slums and squatter settlements.
This research analyzes state-led low-cost housing initiatives compared to informal affordable housing in developing countries. The importance of this research is mainly associated with understanding how governmental housing initiatives and laws affect the housing preferences of the urban poor.
The research starts by providing a brief background about the subject and its importance from the literature. The research uses mixed methods approach and a case study of Greater Cairo Region following the massive migration during the period between the 1980s and the 2000s to provide an in-depth understanding of the situation. The research then analyzes/discusses some housing initiatives, and uses both quantitative/qualitative data in order to explain potential malpractice and issues. Finally, the research will highlight the key findings and provide some recommendations for change/improvement.
 
 

Urban Health’s Methods and Checklist

Mohammad Alaa Al-Jafan; Soulaiman Mhanna

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2020, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 51-71

The purpose of the article is to prepare an integrated theoretical and applied framework for the concept of urban health and methodologies for its application and checking, by presenting and analyzing the relevant literature and experiences. The article includes an analytical study of the concept of urban health, and the identification of planning methodologies that have a positive impact on the health and well-being of urban residents. The article was also concerned with developing a methodology to checking that the topics of urban health are included in existing cities or in their future plans. After that, the article tended to analyze several global cities with a healthy planning direction, checking the topics of urban health in each of them and compare them, then draw lessons learned from these global experiences.
 
 
یحاول البحث بناء إطار نظری وتطبیقی متکامل لمفهوم الصحة الحضریة ومنهجیات تطبیقها والتحقق منها وذلک من خلال عرض وتحلیل عدد من الأدبیات والتجارب ذات الصلة، وفی هذا الإطار تتضمن البحث دراسة تحلیلیة لمفهوم الصحة الحضریة، وتطرق إلى تحدید المنهجیات والآلیات التطبیقیة ذات الأولویة للتخطیط الحضری التی یمکن من خلالها إحداث تأثیر إیجابی على صحة السکان ورفاههم فی المناطق الحضریة، کما اهتم البحث بتطویر منهجیة للتحقق والتأکد من أن القضایا المتعلقة بالصحة الحضریة متضمنة فی المدن القائمة أو فی خططها المستقبلیة، ثم ینتقل البحث إلى تحلیل عدد من المدن العالمیة ذات التوجه التخطیطی الصحی والتحقق من عناصر الصحة الحضریة فی کل منها ومقارنتهم ثم استخلاص النتائج والدروس المستفادة منهم.

Residential Neighborhood Development Analytical study of residential projects in contemporary trends

Sanaa Sati Abbas; Riyad Fikrat Najat

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2019, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 76-92

Abstract
development and such as the problem of research, where the goal of the research to build a theoretical framework to fill this gap. The research hypothesis that the development of the residential neighborhood is achieved through (integration of the social, economic and environmental aspects associated with the values and principles of sustainable neighborhood). The research relied on an analytical descriptive method in the description and analysis of selected samples namely , and was the criterion of choice based on principles of sustainable residential neighborhoods in contemporary trends .
The research concluded that the residential neighborhood based on the principles of development distinct , by achieving social, economic, environment aspects, as well as the urban design and planning values. The sustainable residential neighborhood pattern emphasizes regional development considerations, and principles that define sustainable features including compactness, mixed use, connectivity, pedestrian oriented built form, , vital public realm, and regulation of the relationship with transit transport.
المستخلص: شکل مفهوم الحی السکنی األساس الذی أعتمدته التوجهات الفکریة والنظریة فی مجال التنمیة من الرغبة فی تحسین البیئة المادیة ولتحسین حیاة السکان ، ولهذا کان من الضروری البحث فی مفهوم تنمیة الحی السکنی وهو ما مثل مشکلة البحث، حیث هدف البحث الى بناء إطار نظری لسد هذه الفجوة . یفترض البحث بأن تنمیة الحی السکنی تتحقق من خالل )تکامل الجوانب األجتماعیة واألقتصادیة والبیئیة المرتبطة بقیم ومبادئ األحیاء المستدامة( . أعتمد البحث المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی فی وصف وتحلیل العینات المنتخبة والذی شمل نموذجین للتنمیة وکان معیار أختیارها على أساس مبادئ األحیاء السکنیة المستدامة فی التوجهات المعاصرة . توصل البحث الى تمیز الحی السکنی المعتمد على مبادئ التنمیة بتحقیق الجوانب األجتماعیة ، واالقتصادیة ، والبیئة ، الى جانب تحقیق قیم التصمیم والتخطیط الحضری ، کما تضمن نمط الحی السکنی المستدام بالتأکید على أعتبارات أقلیمیة للتنمیة ، ومبادئ تحدد مالمح وسمات األحیاء المستدامة شملت ، التضام ، واألستعمال المختلط ، واألرتباطیة ، والشکل المبنی الموجه للمشاة ، والمجال العام الحیوی کمکان ، وتنظیم العالقة مع النقل العابر.

Urban Resilience and City Infrastructure Urban resilience of Baghdad

Sanaa Sati Abbas; Sura Kassim Ameen

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2019, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 87-100

Abstract
This paper aims to study urban resilience as an adaptive system in a complex dynamic world along with its ability to comprehend disorder, change and reorganization to conserve identity. Urban resilience can be understood through the interrelationship between people and nature as a source-ecological system. The case study is represented by analyzing (Edlayd City in Australia) in depending on resilience advantages in which optimized by a renewable resource, zero carbon, equity in distributing energy, active environment, sustainable transportation and investing natural materials. Hence, these advantages have been applied on (Al-Karkh Haifa Street) in Baghdad in order to develop its infrastructure by employing renewable resources such as energy, sustainable transportation, refuge recycling, water system and submit suitable solutions for sewage water.
المستخلص: یتناول البحث موضوع المرونة الحضریة باعتبارها نظام قابل للتکیف والتنوع فی عالم دینامیکی معقد , فضال عن قدرته على استیعاب االضطراب والتغیر ثم إعادة التنظیم حفاظا على الهویة . تفهم المرونة الحضریة من خالل العالقة بین الناس والطبیعة فی النظم االجتماعیة والبیئیة. تمثلت مشکلة البحث بوجود فجوة معرفیة حول المرونة الحضریة للبنیة التحتیة للمدن , ویهدف البحث الى توضیح کیفیة تحقیق المرونة فی البنیة التحتیة للمدن , ویفترض البحث ان باإلمکان تطویر البنى التحتیة للمدن القائمة من خالل میزات المرونة. تمثلت الدراسة العملیة بتحلیل مشروع عالمی هو ادیالید االسترالیة اعتمادا على ممیزات المرونة ثم محاولة تطبیق هذه المفردات على مرونة البنى التحتیة لشارع حیفا \ منطقة الکرخ فی مدینة بغداد . توصل البحث الى اهمال جانب البنى التحتیة لهذه المنطقة وباإلمکان تطویرها من خالل اعتماد مفردات الطاقة المتجددة فی تولید الطاقة الکهربائیة واعتماد النقل المستدام )السیارات العامة والدراجة ( بدال من الخاصة ومحاولة إعادة تدویر النفایات وإعادة تصنیفها بدال من ترکها مکدسة فی األماکن العامة وتطویر شبکة الحفاظ على الطاقة والمیاه ووضع حلول مناسبة لتصریف میاه المجاری .

planning process for small cities in Iraq

Najeel Kamal Abdulrazak

The Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 182-196

Abstract
The planning for small towns in Iraq in it's objectives and principles, based on future development of these towns to change its ruler character urban feature, is carried out in absence of national and regional policies, directives and slrategies, this led to ambiguous Master-plans preparation and implementation. The purpose of this paper is to study the reasons of this ambiguity and examine the plaming process of these towns or settlements to indicate some of the problen.rs u'hich are likely has impeded this process to draw attention to the shortages and demand as u,ell as to some ofueakness in its different chains.
الملخص
ان التخطیط للمدن الصغیرة فی العراق فی غایاته وأسسه یعتمد النظرة المستقبلیة للنهوض بها وتغییر طابعها
الریفی الى الطابع الحضری ویتم بغیاب سیاسات وموجهات وإستراتیجیات إقلیمیة وقومیة نتج عنه تخبط فی إعداد
تصامیمها الأساسیة وتنفیذها والغرض من هذا البحث هو لدراسة الأسباب التی نجم عنه هذا التخبط وأختیار عملیة
التخطیط لهذه المدن أو المستوطنات لتأشیر بعض المشاکل التی تواجه هذه العملیة وذلک بإظهار النقص والحاجة
بالإضافة الى الضعف فی حلقاتها المختلفة.